2 0 0 8
VOLVO
XC90

170
 07 Wheels and tires

General information172
Tire inflation pressure tables - U.S. models176
Tire inflation pressure tables - Canadian models177
Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) - U.S. models only178
Tire designations180
Glossary of tire terminology181
Vehicle loading182
Uniform Tire Quality Gradings184
Snow chains, snow tires, studded tires185
Temporary spare186
Changing a wheel187
Tire rotation193

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 07 Wheels and tires

General information

Your vehicle is equipped with tires according to the vehicle's tire information placard on the B-pillar (the structural member at the side of the vehicle, at the rear of the driver's door opening), or on the inside of the fuel filler door on Canadian models.

The tires have good road holding characteristics and offer good handling on dry and wet surfaces. It should be noted however that the tires have been developed to give these features on snow/ice-free surfaces.

Certain models are equipped with "all-season" tires, which provide a somewhat higher degree of road holding on slippery surfaces than tires without the "all-season" rating. However, for optimum road holding on icy or snow-covered roads, we recommend suitable winter tires on all four wheels.

When replacing tires, be sure that the new tires are the same size designation, type (radial) and preferably from the same manufacturer, on all four wheels. Otherwise there is a risk of altering the vehicle's roadholding and handling characteristics.

Storing wheels and tires

When storing complete wheels (tires mounted on rims), they should be suspended off the floor or placed on their sides on the floor.

Tires not mounted on rims should be stored on their sides or standing upright, but should not be suspended.

CAUTION
Tires should preferably be stored in a cool, dry, dark place, and should never be stored in close proximity to solvents, gasoline, oils, etc.

Tread wear indicator


Tread wear indicator

The tires have wear indicator strips running across or parallel to the tread. The letters TWI are printed on the side of the tire. When approximately 1/16" (1.6 mm) is left on the tread, these strips become visible and indicate that the tire should be replaced. Tires with less than 1/16" (1.6 mm) tread offer very poor traction.

When replacing worn tires, it is recommended that the tire be identical in type (radial) and size as the one being replaced. Using a tire of the same make (manufacturer) will prevent alteration of the driving characteristics of the vehicle.

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General information

warning WARNING
  • The wheel and tire sizes for your Volvo are specified to meet stringent stability and handling requirements. Unapproved wheel/ tire size combinations can negatively affect your vehicle's stability and handling. Approved tire sizes are shown in the Tire inflation pressure tables on pages 176 and 177.
  • Any damage caused by installation of unapproved wheel/tire size combinations will not be covered by your new vehicle warranty. Volvo assumes no responsibility for death, injury, or expenses that may result from such installations.
  • New tires

    Remember that tires are perishable goods. As of 2000, the manufacturing week and year will be indicated with 4 digits ( e.g. 1502 means that the tire illustrated was manufactured during week 15 of 2002).

    Tire age

    Tires degrade over time, even when they are not being used. It is recommended that tires generally be replaced after 6 years of normal service. Heat caused by hot climates, frequent high loading conditions or Ultra Violet (U.V) exposure can accelerate the aging process.

    You should replace the spare tire when you replace the other road tires due to the aging of the spare.

    A tire's age can be determined by the DOT stamp on the sidewall (see the illustration above).

    A tire with e.g., visible cracks or discoloration should be replaced immediately.

    Improving tire economy:

  • Maintain correct tire pressure. See the tire pressure table on page 176.
  • Drive smoothly: avoid fast starts, hard braking and tire screeching.
  • Tire wear increases with speed.
  • Correct front wheel alignment is very important.
  • Unbalanced wheels impair tire economy and driving comfort.
  • Tires must maintain the same direction of rotation throughout their lifetime.

    When replacing tires, the tires with the most tread should be mounted on the rear wheels to reduce the chance of oversteer during hard braking.

    Hitting curbs or potholes can damage the tires and/or wheels permanently.

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    General information

    Tire inflation

    Check tire inflation pressure regularly.

    Tables listing the recommended inflation pressure for your vehicle can be found on pages 176 and 177. A tire inflation pressure placard is also located on the driver's side Bpillar (the structural member at the side of the vehicle, at the rear of the driver's door opening). This placard indicates the designation of the factory-mounted tires on your vehicle, as well as load limits and inflation pressure.

    note NOTE
    The placards shown indicate inflation pressure for the tires installed on the vehicle at the factory only.

  • Use a tire gauge to check the tire inflation pressure, including the spare, at least once a month and before long trips. You are strongly urged to buy a reliable tire pressure gauge, as automatic service station gauges may be inaccurate.
  • Use the recommended cold inflation pressure for optimum tire performance and wear.
  • Under-inflation or over-inflation may cause uneven treadwear patterns.

    warning WARNING
  • Under-inflation is the most common cause of tire failure and may result in severe tire cracking, tread separation, or "blowout," with unexpected loss of vehicle control and increased risk of injury.
  • Under-inflated tires reduce the load carrying capacity of your vehicle.
  • When weather temperature changes occur, tire inflation pressures also change. A 10-degree temperature drop causes a corresponding drop of 1 psi (7 kPa) in inflation pressure. Check your tire pressures frequently and adjust them to the proper pressure, which can be found on the vehicle's tire information placard or certification label.

    Checking tire pressure
    A certain amount of air seepage from the tires occurs naturally and tire pressure fluctuates with seasonal changes in temperature. Always check tire pressure regularly.

    Cold tires
    Inflation pressure should be checked when the tires are cold.

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    General information

    The tires are considered to be cold when they have the same temperature as the surrounding (ambient) air.

    This temperature is normally reached after the vehicle has been parked for at least 3 hours.

    After driving a distance of approximately 1 mile (1.6 km), the tires are considered to be hot. If you have to drive farther than this distance to pump your tire(s), check and record the tire pressure first and add the appropriate air pressure when you get to the pump.

    If checking tire pressure when the tire is hot, never "bleed" or reduce air pressure. The tires are hot from driving and it is normal for pressures to increase above recommended cold pressures. A hot tire at or below recommended cold inflation pressure could be significantly under-inflated.

    To check inflation pressure:

  • Remove the cap from the valve on one tire, then firmly press the tire gauge onto the valve.
  • Add air to reach the recommended air pressure.
  • Replace the valve cap.
  • Repeat this procedure for each tire, including the spare.
  • Visually inspect the tires to make sure there are no nails or other objects embedded that could puncture the tire and cause an air leak.
  • Check the sidewalls to make sure there are no gouges, cuts, bulges or other irregularities.

    note NOTE
  • If you overfill the tire, release air by pushing on the metal stem in the center of the valve. Then recheck the pressure with your tire gauge.
  • Some spare tires require higher inflation pressure than the other tires. Consult the tire inflation tables on pages 176 and 177 or see the inflation pressure placard.
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    Tire inflation pressure tables - U.S. models

    The following tire pressures are recommended by Volvo for your vehicle. Refer to the tire inflation placard for information specific to the tires installed on your vehicle at the factory.

    Load ratings
    The load ratings on the tire's sidewall translate as follows, for example:

    102 = 1874 lbs (850 kg)
    104 = 1984 lbs (900 kg)
    107 = 2150 lbs (975 kg)

    Speed ratings
    The speed ratings on the tire's sidewall translate as follows, for example:

    M = 81 mph (130 km/h)
    H = 130 mph (210 km/h)
    V = 149 mph (240 km/h)
    Y = 186 mph (300 km/h)

    See also page 180 for an explanation of the designations on the sidewall of the tire.

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    Tire inflation pressure tables - Canadian models

    The following tire pressures are recommended by Volvo for your vehicle. Refer to the tire inflation placard for information specific to the tires installed on your vehicle at the factory.

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    Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) - U.S. models only

    The tire pressure monitoring system uses sensors mounted in the tire valves to check inflation pressure levels. When the vehicle is moving at a speed of approximately 20 mph (30 km/h) or faster, these sensors transmit inflation pressure data to a receiver located in the vehicle.

    USA - FCC ID: MRXG403MA41
    This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following conditions: (1) This device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.

    1 On certain models, the FCC code is MRXTG315AM04

    When low inflation pressure is detected, TPMS will light up the tire pressure warning light ( ) (also referred to as a telltale) in the instrument panel, and will display a message in the text window. The wording of this message is determined by the degree of inflation pressure loss.

    note NOTE
    If a fault occurs in TPMS, the tire pressure warning light will flash for approximately 1 minute and TIRE PRESS SYST SERVICE REQUIRED will be displayed.

    Each tire, including the spare (if provided), should be checked monthly when cold and inflated to the inflation pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer on the vehicle placard or tire inflation pressure label. (If your vehicle has tires of a different size than the size indicated on the vehicle placard or tire inflation pressure label, you should determine the proper tire inflation pressure for those tires.)

    As an added safety feature, your vehicle has been equipped with a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) that illuminates a low tire pressure telltale when one or more of your tires is significantly under-inflated. Accordingly, when the low tire pressure telltale illuminates, you should stop and check your tires as soon as possible, and inflate them to the proper pressure. Driving on a significantly under-inflated tire causes the tire to overheat and can lead to tire failure. Under-inflation also reduces fuel efficiency and tire tread life, and may affect the vehicle's handling and stopping ability.

    Please note that the TPMS is not a substitute for proper tire maintenance, and it is the driver's responsibility to maintain correct tire pressure, even if under-inflation has not reached the level to trigger illumination of the TPMS low tire pressure telltale.

    Your vehicle has also been equipped with a TPMS malfunction indicator to indicate when the system is not operating properly. The TPMS malfunction indicator is combined with the low tire pressure telltale. When the system detects a malfunction, the telltale will flash for approximately one minute and then remain continuously illuminated. This sequence will continue upon subsequent vehicle start-ups as long as the malfunction exists. When the malfunction indicator is illuminated, the system may not be able to detect or signal low tire pressure as intended. TPMS malfunctions may occur for a variety of reasons, including the installation of replacement or alternate tires or wheels on the vehicle that prevent the TPMS from functioning properly. Always check the TPMS malfunction telltale after replacing one or more tires or wheels on your vehicle to ensure that the replacement or alternate tires and wheels allow the TPMS to continue to function properly.

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    Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) - U.S. models only

    note NOTE
    TPMS indicates low tire pressure but does not replace normal tire maintenance. For information on correct tire pressure, please refer to the tables on pages 176 and 177, or consult your Volvo retailer.

    Erasing warning messages
    When a low tire pressure warning message has been displayed, and the tire pressure warning light has come on:

  • Use a tire pressure gauge to check the inflation pressure of all four tires.
  • Re-inflate the tire(s) to the correct pressure (consult the tire pressure placard or the table on page 176).
  • Drive the vehicle for several minutes at a speed of 20 mph (30 km/h) or faster.

    This will erase the warning text and the warning light will go out.

    warning WARNING
    Incorrect inflation pressure could lead to tire failure, resulting in a loss of control of the vehicle.

    Changing wheels with TPMS
    Please note the following when changing or replacing the factory installed TPMS wheels/tires on the vehicle:

  • Only the factory-mounted wheels are equipped with TPMS sensors in the valves.
  • If the vehicle is equipped with a temporary spare tire, this tire does not have a TPMS sensor.
  • If wheels without TPMS sensors are mounted on the vehicle, TIRE PRESS SYST SERVICE REQUIRED will be displayed each time the vehicle is driven above 25 mph (40 km/h) for 10 minutes or more.
  • Once TPMS sensors are properly installed, the warning message should not reappear.
  • Volvo recommends that TPMS sensors be fitted on all wheels used on the vehicle. Volvo does not recommend moving sensors back and forth between sets of wheels.

    CAUTION
    When inflating tires with TPMS valves, press the pump's mouthpiece straight onto the valve to help avoid bending or otherwise damaging the valve.

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    Tire designations

    Federal law mandates that tire manufacturers place standardized information on the sidewall of all tires (see the illustration).

    The following information is listed on the tire sidewall:

    The tire designation (the following figures are examples of a tire designation):

    1. 215: the width of the tire (in millimeters) from sidewall edge to sidewall edge. The larger the number, the wider the tire.

    2. 65: The ratio of the tire's height to its width.

    3. R: Radial tire.

    4. 15: The diameter of the wheel rim (in inches).

    5. 95: The tire's load index. In this example, a load index of 95 equals a maximum load of 1521 lbs (690 kg).

    6. H: The tire's speed rating, or the maximum speed at which the tire is designed to be driven for extended periods of time, carrying a permissible load for the vehicle, and with correct inflation pressure. For example, H indicates a speed rating of 130 mph (210 km/h).

    note NOTE
    This information may not appear on the tire because it is not required by law.

    7. M+S or M/S = Mud and Snow, AT = All Terrain, AS = All Season

    8. U.S. DOT Tire Identification Number (TIN): This begins with the letters "DOT" and indicates that the tire meets all federal standards. The next two numbers or letters are the plant code where it was manufactured, the next two are the tire size code and the last four numbers represent the week and year the tire was built. For example, the numbers 317 mean the 31st week of 1997. After 2000 the numbers go to four digits. For example, 2501 means the 25th week of 2001. The numbers in between are marketing codes used at the manufacturer's discretion. This information helps a tire manufacturer identify a tire for safety recall purposes.

    9. Tire Ply Composition and Material Used: Indicates the number of plies indicates or the number of layers of rubber-coated fabric in the tire tread and sidewall. Tire manufacturers also must indicate the ply materials in the tire and the sidewall, which include steel, nylon, polyester, and others.

    10. Maximum Load: Indicates the maximum load in pounds and kilograms that can be carried by the tire. Refer to the vehicle's tire information placard or the safety certification label, located on the B-Pillar or the driver's door or on the inside of the fuel filler door on Canadian models, for the correct tire pressure for your vehicle.

    11. Treadwear, Traction, and Temperature grades: See page 184 for more information.

    12. Maximum permissible inflation pressure: the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire. This limit is set by the tire manufacturer.

    Tire suppliers may have additional markings, notes or warnings such as standard load, radial tubeless, etc.

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    Glossary of tire terminology

  • Tire information placard: A placard showing the OE (Original Equipment) tire sizes, recommended inflation pressure, and the maximum weight the vehicle can carry.
  • Tire Identification Number (TIN): A number on the sidewall of each tire providing information about the tire brand and manufacturing plant, tire size and date of manufacturer.
  • Inflation pressure: A measure of the amount of air in a tire.
  • Standard load: A class of P-metric or Metric tires designed to carry a maximum load at 35 psi [37 psi (2.5 bar) for Metric tires]. Increasing the inflation pressure beyond this pressure will not increase the tires load carrying capability.
  • Extra load: A class of P-metric or Metric tires designed to carry a heavier maximum load at 41 psi [43 psi (2.9 bar) for Metric tires]. Increasing the inflation pressure beyond this pressure will not increase the tires load carrying capability.
  • kPa: Kilopascal, a metric unit of air pressure.
  • PSI: Pounds per square inch, a standard unit of air pressure.
  • B-pillar: The structural member at the side of the vehicle behind the front door.
  • Bead area of the tire: Area of the tire next to the rim.
  • Sidewall of the tire: Area between the bead area and the tread.
  • Tread area of the tire: Area of the perimeter of the tire that contacts the road when mounted on the vehicle.
  • Rim: The metal support (wheel) for a tire or a tire and tube assembly upon which the tire beads are seated.
  • Maximum load rating: a figure indicating the maximum load in pounds and kilograms that can be carried by the tire. This rating is established by the tire manufacturer.
  • Maximum permissible inflation pressure: the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire. This limit is set by the tire manufacturer.
  • Recommended tire inflation pressure: inflation pressure, established by Volvo, which is based on the type of tires that are mounted on a vehicle at the factory. This inflation pressure is affected by the number of occupants in the vehicle, the amount of cargo, and the speed at which the vehicle will be driven for a prolonged period. This information can be found on the tire inflation placard(s) located on the driver's side B-pillar or on the inside of the fuel filler door on Canadian models, and in the tire inflation table in this chapter.
  • Cold tires: The tires are considered to be cold when they have the same temperature as the surrounding (ambient) air. This temperature is normally reached after the vehicle has been parked for at least 3 hours.

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    Vehicle loading

    Properly loading your vehicle will provide maximum return of vehicle design performance.

    Before loading your vehicle, familiarize yourself with the following terms for deter-mining your vehicle's weight ratings, with or without a trailer, from the vehicle's Federal/ Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS/CMVSS) label, and the vehicle's tire information placard.

    Curb weight
    The weight of the vehicle including a full tank of fuel and all standard equipment. It does not include passengers, cargo, or optional equipment.

    Capacity weight
    All weight added to the curb weight, including cargo and optional equipment. When towing, trailer hitch tongue load is also part of cargo weight.

    note NOTE
    For trailer towing information, please refer to the section "Towing a trailer" on page 157.

    Permissible axle weight
    The maximum allowable weight that can be carried by a single axle (front or rear). These numbers are shown on the Federal/Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS/CMVSS) label. The total load on each axle must never exceed its maximum permissible weight.

    Gross vehicle weight (GVW)
    The vehicle's curb weight + cargo + passengers.

    note NOTE
  • The location of the various labels in your vehicle can be found on page 257.
  • A table listing important weight limits for your vehicle can be found on page 259.
  • Steps for Determining Correct Load Limit

  • Locate the statement "the combined weight of occupants and cargo should never exceed XXX pounds'' on your vehicle's placard.
  • Determine the combined weight of the driver and passengers that will be riding in your vehicle.
  • Subtract the combined weight of the driver and passengers from XXX kilograms or XXX pounds.
  • The resulting figure equals the available amount of cargo and luggage load capacity. For example, if the "XXX'' amount equals 1400 lbs. and there will be five 150 lb. passengers in your vehicle, the amount of available cargo and luggage load capacity is 650 lbs. (1400-750 (5 x 150) = 650 lbs.)
  • Determine the combined weight of luggage and cargo being loaded on the vehicle. That weight may not safely exceed the available cargo and luggage load capacity calculated in Step 4.
  • If your vehicle will be towing a trailer, load from your trailer will be transferred to your vehicle. Consult this manual1 to determine how this reduces the available cargo and luggage load capacity of your vehicle.

    11See "Towing a trailer" on page 157.

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    Vehicle loading

    warning WARNING
  • Exceeding the permissible axle weight, gross vehicle weight, or any other weight rating limits can cause tire overheating resulting in permanent deformation or catastrophic failure.
  • Do not use replacement tires with lower load carrying capacities than the tires that were original equipment on the vehicle because this will lower the vehicle's GVW rating. Replacement tires with a higher limit than the originals do not increase the vehicle's GVW rating limitations.
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    Uniform Tire Quality Grading

    ALL PASSENGER VEHICLE TIRES MUST CONFORM TO FEDERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS IN ADDITION TO THESE GRADES

    Quality grades can be found, where applicable, on the tire sidewall between the tread shoulder and maximum section width. For example:

    Treadwear 200 Traction AA Temperature A

    TREADWEAR
    The treadwear grade is a comparative rating based on the wear rate of the tire when tested under controlled conditions on a specified government test course. For example, a tire graded 150 would wear one and one half (1 1/2) times as well on the government course as a tire graded 100. The relative performance of tires depends upon the actual conditions of their use, however, and many depart significantly from the norm due to variation in driving habits, maintenance practices and differences in road characteristics and climate.

    TRACTION
    The traction grades, from highest to lowest, are AA, A, B, and C, as measured under controlled conditions on specified government test surfaces of asphalt and concrete. A tire marked C may have poor traction performance.

    warning WARNING
    The traction grade assigned to this tire is based on braking (straight-ahead) traction tests and is not a measure of cornering (turning) traction.

    TEMPERATURE
    The temperature grades are AA (the highest), A, B, and C, representing the tire's resistance to the generation of heat and its ability to dissipate heat when tested under controlled conditions on a specified indoor laboratory test wheel. Sustained high temperature can cause the material of the tire to degenerate and reduce tire life, and excessive temperature can lead to sudden tire failure. The grade C corresponds to a minimum level of performance that all passenger vehicle tires must meet under the Federal Motor Safety Standard No. 109. Grades B and A represent higher levels of performance on the laboratory test wheel than the minimum required by law.

    warning WARNING
    The temperature grade for this tire is established for a tire that is properly inflated and not overloaded. Excessive speed, under-inflation, or excessive loading, either separately or in combination, can cause heat buildup and tire failure.

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    Snow chains, snow tires, studded tires

    Snow chains

    Snow chains can be used on your Volvo with the following restrictions:

  • Snow chains should be installed on front wheels only. Use only Volvo approved snow chains.
  • If accessory, aftermarket or "custom" tires and wheels are installed and are of a size different than the original tires and wheels, chains in some cases CANNOT be used. Sufficient clearances between chains and brakes, suspension and body components must be maintained.
  • Some strap-on type chains will interfere with brake components and therefore CANNOT be used.
  • All Wheel Drive models: Snow chains should only be installed on the front wheels. Only chains adapted for AWD models should be used.

    Consult your Volvo retailer for additional snow chain information.

    CAUTION
  • Check local regulations regarding the use of snow chains before installing.
  • Always follow the chain manufacturer's installation instructions carefully. Install chains as tightly as possible and retighten periodically.
  • Never exceed the chain manufacturer's specified maximum speed limit. (Under no circumstances should you exceed 31 mph (50 km/h)).
  • Avoid bumps, holes or sharp turns when driving with snow chains.
  • The handling of the vehicle can be adversely affected when driving with chains. Avoid fast or sharp turns as well as locked wheel braking.
  • Snow tires, studded tires1

    Tires for winter use:

  • Owners who live in or regularly commute through areas with sustained periods of snow or icy driving conditions are strongly advised to fit suitable winter tires to help retain the highest degree of traction.
  • It is important to install winter tires on all four wheels to help retain traction during cornering, braking, and accelerating. Failure to do so could reduce traction to an unsafe level or adversely affect handling.
  • Do not mix tires of different design as this could also negatively affect overall tire road grip.
  • Winter tires wear more quickly on dry roads in warm weather. They should be removed when the winter driving season has ended.
  • Studded tires should be run-in 300-600 miles (500-1000 km) during which the vehicle should be driven as smoothly as possible to give the studs the opportunity to seat properly in the tires. The tires should have the same rotational direction throughout their entire lifetime.

    1Where permitted

    note NOTE
    Please consult state or provincial regulations restricting the use of studded winter tires before installing such tires.

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    Temporary spare

    The spare tire in your vehicle is called a "Temporary Spare".

    Recommended tire pressure (see the placard on the B-pillar or on the fuel filler door) should be maintained irrespective of which position on the vehicle the temporary spare tire is used.

    In the event of damage to this tire, a new one can be purchased from your Volvo retailer.

    warning WARNING
    Current legislation prohibits the use of the "Temporary Spare" tire other than as a temporary replacement for a punctured tire. It must be replaced as soon as possible by a standard tire. Road holding and handling may be affected with the "Temporary Spare" in use.

    CAUTION
    The vehicle must not be driven with wheels of different dimensions or with a spare tire other than the one that came with the vehicle. The use of different size wheels can seriously damage your vehicle's transmission.

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    Changing wheels

    Changing wheels

    Location of jack, five-seat models
    The jack is located to the right under the rear hatch in the cargo area floor. Lift this hatch and release the retaining strap to lift out the jack.

    The rear section of the jack's crank and the tool bag are stowed to the left under the hatch. The front section of the crank is stored in the tool bag. The tool bag also contains a tool for removing certain optional wheel covers. Consult your Volvo retailer.

    note NOTE
    The rear section of the crank is enclosed in a protective sleeve that should be slid off before the crank is used. We recommend reinserting the crank into this sleeve before the crank is stowed.

    If the vehicle is equipped with the optional grocery bag holder: Fold up the rear section of the cargo area floor, disconnect the grocery bag holder's retaining cords and fold up the lower section of the floor to access the tool bag.

    Location of jack, seven-seat models
    The jack is located in the center under the rear hatch in the cargo area floor. Lift this hatch and release the retaining strap to slide out the jack.

    The rear section of the jack's crank and the tool bag are stowed to the left under the hatch. The front section of the crank is stored in the tool bag.

    The rear section of the crank is enclosed in a protective sleeve that should be slid off before the crank is used. We recommend

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    Changing wheels

    reinserting the crank into this sleeve before the crank is stowed.

    If the vehicle is equipped with the optional grocery bag holder: Fold up the rear section of the cargo area floor, disconnect the grocery bag holder's retaining cords and fold up the lower section of the floor.

    CAUTION
    Seven-seat models: Do not store objects in the area for the rear seat cushions (when the backrests are to be folded down). This could damage the cushions.

    Lowering the spare wheel
    The spare wheel is located under the floor of the rear cargo compartment. It can be lowered using the crank (see previous page for location).

    warning WARNING
    When raising or lowering the spare wheel, please keep in mind that components in the exhaust system may be very hot.

    To lower the spare wheel:
    1. Fold down the lower section of the tailgate.

    2. Fold up the rear section of the floor in the cargo compartment.

    3. Connect the two sections of the jack's crank.

    4. Insert the hooked end of the crank in the spare wheel retaining attachment.

    5. Lower the spare wheel under the vehicle by turning the crank counterclockwise until it is not possible to turn it further.

    6. Pivot the toggle at the end of the cable 90 degrees to release it from the spare wheel

    7. Crank up the cable again by turning the crank clockwise.

    CAUTION
    When the spare wheel is mounted on the vehicle, the retaining cable could damage the underside of the vehicle if it is not retracted.

    8. Place the wheel with the flat tire in the vehicle's cargo compartment.

    note NOTE
    The space under the vehicle is designed to hold the special spare wheel only. Other full-size wheels will not fit in this compartment.

    Returning the spare wheel to the storage compartment
    1. Use the crank (turn it counterclockwise) to lower the spare wheel's retaining cable.

    2. Pass the toggle at the end of the cable through the center hole in the spare wheel. Pivot the toggle 90 degrees so that when raised, the wheel will rest on the toggle.

    3. Retract the retaining cable slightly by slowly turning the crank clockwise several times.

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    Changing wheels

    4. Position the wheel so that it is not obstructed by components in the exhaust system.

    5. Continue to raise the wheel by turning the crank clockwise.Raise the wheel a little bit at a time and guide it around the rear axle until it is securely seated in the storage area.

    6. When it is no longer possible to turn the crank any further, check that the spare wheel is securely in position in the storage compartment.

    Jack attachments
    There are two attachment points for the jack on each side of the vehicle. These attachment points are under the center of each door.

    warning WARNING
    There is an attachment point on each side of the vehicle located under the pillars between the front and rear doors. This point is used during the production process only, and is NOT intended for attaching the jack.

    warning WARNING
    The undersides of accessory running boards are not intended for attaching the jack.

    Changing a wheel

  • Park the vehicle on a firm, level, non-slippery surface.
  • Engage the parking brake and put the gear selector in the Park position.
  • Loosen the wheel bolts by exerting downward pressure on the lug wrench.
  • Remove the wheel cap (where applicable) using the lug wrench in the tool bag.

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    Changing wheels

  • With the wheels still on the ground, use the lug wrench to loosen the wheel bolts 1/2 -1 turn. Turn the bolts counterclockwise to loosen the bolts.

    CAUTION
  • The vehicle must not be driven with wheels of different dimensions or with a spare tire other than the one that came with the vehicle. The use of different size wheels can seriously damage your vehicle's transmission.
  • Correct tightening torque on wheel bolts must be observed.
  • The wheel bolts should never be greased or lubricated.
  • Extended, chromed wheel bolts must not be used with steel rims, as they make it impossible to fit the hub caps.
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    Changing wheels

  • Place the jack on the ground, under one of the attachment points (see the illustration) and crank while simultaneously guiding the jack's attachment bracket onto the attachment point (see illustration) The base of the jack must be flat on a level, firm, non-slippery surface. Before raising the vehicle, check that the jack is still correctly positioned in the attachment.
  • Raise the vehicle until the wheel to be changed is lifted off the ground.
  • Unscrew the wheel bolts completely and carefully remove the wheel so as not to damage the threads on the studs.

    note NOTE
    To avoid excessive wear and the necessity of rebalancing, mark and reinstall wheels in the same location and position as before removal. To lessen the chance of imbalance, each wheel hub is equipped with a guide stud to ensure that a removed wheel can be reinstalled in its original position (as when changing over to winter tires/wheels).

    Installing the wheel
    1. Clean the contact surfaces on the wheel and hub.

    2. Lift the wheel and place it on the hub.

    3. Install the wheel bolts and tighten hand-tight. Using the lug wrench, tighten crosswise until all bolts are snug.

    4. Lower the vehicle to the ground and alternately tighten the bolts crosswise to 102 ft.lbs. (140 Nm).

    5. Install the wheel cap (where applicable).

    192
     07 Wheels and tires

    Changing wheels

    warning WARNING
  • The jack must correctly engage the bar in the jack attachment. The vehicle's weight must not rest on the jack attachment. See illustration "Attaching the jack" on the previous page.
  • Be sure the jack is on a firm, level, non-slippery surface.
  • Never allow any part of your body to be extended under a vehicle supported by a jack.
  • Use the jack intended for the vehicle when replacing a wheel. For any other job, use stands to support the side of the vehicle being worked on.
  • Apply the parking brake and put the gear selector in the (P)ark position.
  • Block the wheels standing on the ground, use rigid wooden blocks or large stones.
  • The jack should be kept well-greased and clean, and should not be damaged.
  • No objects should be placed between the base of jack and the ground, or between the jack and the attachment bar on the vehicle.
  • 193
     07 Wheels and tires

    Tire rotation

    Summer and winter tires

  • When switching between summer and winter tires, mark the tires to indicate where they were mounted on the car, e.g., LF = left front, RR = right rear
  • Tires with tread designed to roll in only one direction are marked with an arrow on the sidewall.
  • Incorrectly mounted tires impair the car's braking properties and ability to force aside rain, snow and slush.
  • The tires with the most tread should always be at the rear (to reduce the risk of skidding).
  • Contact a Volvo workshop if you are unsure about the tread depth.

    Tire rotation
    Your vehicle has no recommended tire rotation. The following information is intended to help you understand why.

    Tread set
    As a tire ages and the rubber cures, front and rear tires set at different angles. Therefore, if tires are rotated, the tread will eventually set at an angle that is a compromise. Even if ride, handling, and road noise may still seem acceptable, they may not be optimal. Further, tires that are rotated, but not on a regular basis, may actually cause more tire noise, faster tire wear, and unpleasant changes in steering feel and vehicle handling.

    A tire that can fully adapt to its position will provide better steering feel, lower tire noise, and better fuel economy.

    Braking stability performance
    Your vehicle is driven mainly by the front tires, which will wear faster. This can be beneficial. Having more tread on the rear tires will help reduce oversteer. Oversteer is when a vehicle wants to keep turning because of momentum and dynamic forces on its suspension.

    Suspension wear diagnostics
    Every suspension needs periodic inspection and maintenance. A tire's wear pattern can be an aid in detecting a suspension problem. Each tire, if left in place, tells a story about the suspension. Tire rotation, on the other hand, could make suspension wear harder to detect. Early detection is very important, because suspension problems can make tire wear worse.

    If you do rotate your tires...
    Please follow the tire manufacturer's recommendations, as outlined in the tire manufacturers tire warranty pamphlet.



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