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Chapter 8 - Volvo Service

pg. 123 Wheels and tires

General information 124
Tire inflation 125
Tire inflation pressure tables 127
Tire designations 128
Glossary of tire terminology 129
Vehicle loading 130
Uniform Tire Quality Grading 131
Temporary Spare 133
Wheel nuts 134
Changing a tire 135

pg. 124 General information

General information
Your vehicle is equipped with tires according to the vehicle's tire information placard on the B-pillar (the structural member at the side of the vehicle, at the rear of the driver's door opening), or on the inside of the fuel filler door on Canadian models.
The tires have good road holding characteristics and offer good handling on dry and wet surfaces. It should be noted however that the tires have been developed to give these features on snow/ice-free surfaces.
Certain models are equipped with "all-season" tires, which provide a somewhat higher degree of road holding on slippery surfaces than tires without the "all-season" rating. However, for optimum road holding on icy or snow-covered roads, we recommend suitable winter tires on all four wheels.
When replacing tires, be sure that the new tires are the same size designation, type (radial) and preferably from the same manufacturer, on all four wheels. Otherwise there is a risk of altering the car's roadholding and handling characteristics.

NOTE: When storing wheel/tire assemblies (e.g. winter tires and wheels), either stand the assemblies upright, or suspend them off the ground. Laying wheel/tire assemblies on their sides for prolonged periods can cause wheel and/or tire damage.

Tread wear indicator

Tread wear indicator
The tires have wear indicator strips running across or parallel to the tread. The letters TWI are printed on the side of the tire. When approximately 1/16" (1.6 mm) is left on the tread, these strips become visible and indicate that the tire should be replaced. Tires with less than 1/16" (1.6 mm) tread offer very poor traction.
When replacing worn tires, it is recommended that the tire be identical in type (radial) and size as the one being replaced. Using a tire of the same make (manufacturer) will prevent alteration of the driving characteristics of the vehicle.

New tires
Remember that tires are perishable goods. As of 2000, the manufacturing week and year will be indicated with 4 digits (e.g. 1502 means that the tire illustrated was manufactured during week 15 of 2002).

Improving tire economy:

  • Maintain correct tire pressure. See the tire pressure table on page 127.
  • Drive smoothly: avoid fast starts, hard braking and tire screeching.
  • Tire wear increases with speed.
  • Correct front wheel alignment is very important.
  • Unbalanced wheels impair tire economy and driving comfort.
  • Tires must maintain the same direction of rotation throughout their lifetime.
  • When replacing tires, the tires with the most tread should be mounted on the rear wheels to reduce the chance of oversteer during hard braking.
  • Hitting curbs or potholes can damage the tires and/or wheels permanently.

    pg. 125 Tire inflation

    Tire inflation placards on U.S. models

    Tire inflation
    Check tire inflation pressure regularly.

    A table listing the recommended inflation pressure for your vehicle can be found on page 127. Tire inflation pressure placards are also located on the driver's side B-pillar (the structural member at the side of the vehicle, at the rear of the driver's door opening), or on the inside of the fuel filler door on Canadian models. These placards indicate the designation of the factory-mounted tires on your vehicle, as well as load limits and inflation pressure.

    Tire inflation placard on Canadian models

    NOTE: The placards shown indicate inflation pressure for the tires installed on the car at the factory only.

  • Use a tire gauge to check the tire inflation pressure, including the spare, at least once a month and before long trips. You are strongly urged to buy a reliable tire pressure gauge, as automatic service station gauges may be inaccurate.
  • Use the recommended cold inflation pressure for optimum tire performance and wear.
  • Under-inflation or over-inflation may cause uneven treadwear patterns.

    - Under-inflation is the most common cause of tire failure and may result in severe tire cracking, tread separation, or "blowout," with unexpected loss of vehicle control and increased risk of injury.
    - Under-inflated tires reduce the load carrying capacity of your vehicle.

    When weather temperature changes occur, tire inflation pressures also change. A 10- degree temperature drop causes a corresponding drop of 1 psi (7 kPa) in inflation pressure. Check your tire pressures frequently and adjust them to the proper pressure, which can be found on the vehicle's tire information placard or certification label.

    Checking tire pressure
    Cold tires

    Inflation pressure should be checked when the tires are cold.

    The tires are considered to be cold when they have the same temperature as the surrounding (ambient) air.

    This temperature is normally reached after the car has been parked for at least 3 hours.

    pg. 126 Tire inflation

    After driving a distance of approximately 1 mile (1.6 km), the tires are considered to be hot. If you have to drive farther than this distance to pump your tire(s), check and record the tire pressure first and add the appropriate air pressure when you get to the pump.

    If checking tire pressure when the tire is hot, never "bleed" or reduce air pressure. The tires are hot from driving and it is normal for pressures to increase above recommended cold pressures. A hot tire at or below recommended cold inflation pressure could be significantly under-inflated.

    To check inflation pressure:

    1. Remove the cap from the valve on one tire, then firmly press the tire gauge onto the valve.

    2. Add air to reach the recommended air pressure

    3. Replace the valve cap.

    4. Repeat this procedure for each tire, including the spare.

    5. Visually inspect the tires to make sure there are no nails or other objects embedded that could puncture the tire and cause an air leak.

    6. Check the sidewalls to make sure there are no gouges, cuts, bulges or other irregularities.


  • If you overfill the tire, release air by pushing on the metal stem in the center of the valve. Then recheck the pressure with your tire gauge.
  • Some spare tires require higher inflation pressure than the other tires. Consult the tire inflation table on page 127 or see the inflation pressure placard.

    pg. 127 Tire inflation pressure tables

    Tire pressures recommended by Volvo for your vehicle. Refer to the tire inflation placard for information specific to the tires installed on your vehicle at the factory.
    Tire sizeCold tire pressure for vehicle loads up to 800 lbs (365 kg)a psi (kPa)
    195/65R15b 91V36 (250)36 (250)
    205/55R16 91V36 (250)36 (250)
    205/50R17 93V Extra load36 (250)36 (250)
    215/45R18 93W36 (250)36 (250)
    Temporary spare tire T125/85R16 99M61 (420)61 (420)

    a. These weights include the weight of all occupants of the car plus cargo.

    b. 15" wheels should only be used on models with non-turbo engines, and with 15" front brakes. Consult your Volvo retailer.

    Load ratings The load ratings in the tables above translate as follows:
    91 = 1365 lbs (615 kg), 93 = 1433 lbs (650 kg), 99 = 1709 lbs (755 kg).

    Optional tire pressure. These inflation pressures may only be used when the vehicle is not fully loaded.
    Tire sizeOptional cold tire pressure that may only be used for vehicle loads up to 495 lbs (225 kg). psi (kPa)
    195/65R15 91V 30 (210) 30 (210)
    205/55R16 91V 30 (210) 30 (210)
    205/50R17 93V Extra load 35 (240) 32 (220)
    215/45R18 93W 35 (240) 32 (220)
    Temporary spare tire T125/85R16 99M 61 (420)61 (420)

    Speed ratings
    The speed ratings in the tables translate as follows:

    M = 81 mph (130 km/h), V= 149 mph (240 km/h)
    See also page 128 for an explanation of the designations on the sidewall of the tire.

    pg. 128 Tire designations

    Tire designations
    Federal law mandates that tire manufacturers place standardized information on the sidewall of all tires (see the illustration).

    The following information is listed on the tire sidewall:

    The tire designation (the following figures are examples of a tire designation):

    1. 215: the width of the tire (in millimeters) from sidewall edge to sidewall edge. The larger the number, the wider the tire.

    2. 65: The ratio of the tire's height to its width.

    3. R: Radial tire.

    4. 15: The diameter of the wheel rim (in inches).

    5. 95: The tire's load index. In this example, a load index of 95 equals a maximum load of 1521 lbs (690 kg).

    6. H: The tire's speed rating, or the maximum speed at which the tire is designed to be driven for extended periods of time, carrying a permissible load for the vehicle, and with correct inflation pressure. For example, H indicates a speed rating of 130 mph (210 km/h).

    NOTE: This information may not appear on the tire because it is not required by law.

    7. M+S or M/S = Mud and Snow, AT = All Terrain, AS = All Season

    8. U.S. DOT Tire Identification Number (TIN): This begins with the letters "DOT" and indicates that the tire meets all federal standards. The next two numbers or letters are the plant code where it was manufactured, the next two are the tire size code and the last four numbers represent the week and year the tire was built. For example, the numbers 317 mean the 31st week of 1997. After 2000 the numbers go to four digits. For example, 2501 means the 25th week of 2001. The numbers in between are marketing codes used at the manufacturer's discretion. This information helps a tire manufacturer identify a tire for safety recall purposes.

    9. Tire Ply Composition and Material Used: Indicates the number of plies indicates or the number of layers of rubber-coated fabric in the tire tread and sidewall. Tire manufacturers also must indicate the ply materials in the tire and the sidewall, which include steel, nylon, polyester, and others.

    10. Maximum Load: Indicates the maximum load in pounds and kilograms that can be carried by the tire. Refer to the vehicle's tire information placard or the safety certification label, located on the B-Pillar or the driver's door or on the inside of the fuel filler door on Canadian models, for the correct tire pressure for your vehicle.

    11. Treadwear, Traction, and Temperature grades: See page 131 for more information.

    12. Maximum permissible inflation pressure: the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire. This limit is set by the tire manufacturer.

    pg. 129 Glossary of tire terminology

    The tire suppliers may have additional markings, notes or warnings such as standard load, radial tubeless, etc.

  • Tire information placard: A placard showing the OE (Original Equipment) tire sizes, recommended inflation pressure, and the maximum weight the vehicle can carry.
  • Tire Identification Number (TIN): A number on the sidewall of each tire providing information about the tire brand and manufacturing plant, tire size and date of manufacturer.
  • Inflation pressure: A measure of the amount of air in a tire.
  • Standard load: A class of P-metric or Metric tires designed to carry a maximum load at 35 psi [37 psi (2.5 bar) for Metric tires]. Increasing the inflation pressure beyond this pressure will not increase the tires load carrying capability.
  • Extra load: A class of P-metric or Metric tires designed to carry a heavier maximum load at 41 psi [43 psi (2.9 bar) for Metric tires]. Increasing the inflation pressure beyond this pressure will not increase the tires load carrying capability.
  • kPa: Kilopascal, a metric unit of air pressure.
  • PSI: Pounds per square inch, a standard unit of air pressure.
  • B-pillar: The structural member at the side of the vehicle behind the front door.
  • Bead area of the tire: Area of the tire next to the rim.
  • Sidewall of the tire: Area between the bead area and the tread.
  • Tread area of the tire: Area of the perimeter of the tire that contacts the road when mounted on the vehicle.
  • Rim: The metal support (wheel) for a tire or a tire and tube assembly upon which the tire beads are seated.
  • Maximum load rating: a figure indicating the maximum load in pounds and kilograms that can be carried by the tire. This rating is established by the tire manufacturer.
  • Maximum permissible inflation pressure: the greatest amount of air pressure that should ever be put in the tire. This limit is set by the tire manufacturer.
  • Recommended tire inflation pressure: inflation pressure, established by Volvo, which is based on the type of tires that are mounted on a vehicle at the factory. This inflation pressure is affected by the number of occupants in the car, the amount of cargo, and the speed at which the vehicle will be driven for a prolonged period. This information can be found on the tire inflation placard(s) located on the driver's side B-pillar or on the inside of the fuel filler door on Canadian models, and in the tire inflation table in this chapter.
  • Cold tires: The tires are considered to be cold when they have the same temperature as the surrounding (ambient) air. This temperature is normally reached after the car has been parked for at least 3 hours.

    pg. 130 Vehicle loading

    Vehicle loading
    Properly loading your vehicle will provide maximum return of vehicle design performance.
    Before loading your vehicle, familiarize yourself with the following terms for determining your vehicle's weight ratings, with or without a trailer, from the vehicle's Federal/ Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS/CMVSS) label, and the vehicle's tire information placard:

    Curb weight
    The weight of the vehicle including a full tank of fuel and all standard equipment. It does not include passengers, cargo, or optional equipment.

    Capacity weight
    All weight added to the curb weight, including cargo and optional equipment. When towing, trailer hitch tongue load is also part of cargo weight.

    NOTE: For trailer towing information, please refer to the section "Towing a trailer" on page 120.

    Permissible axle weight
    The maximum allowable weight that can be carried by a single axle (front or rear). These numbers are shown on the Federal/Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS/CMVSS) label. The total load on each axle must never exceed its maximum permissible weight.

    Gross vehicle weight (GVW)
    The vehicle's curb weight + cargo + passengers.


  • The location of the various labels in your vehicle can be found on page 184.
  • A table listing important weight limits for your vehicle can be found on page 185.

    Steps for Determining Correct Load Limit
    (1) Locate the statement ''the combined weight of occupants and cargo should never exceed XXX pounds'' on your vehicle's placard.
    (2) Determine the combined weight of the driver and passengers that will be riding in your vehicle.
    (3) Subtract the combined weight of the driver and passengers from XXX kilograms or XXX pounds.
    (4) The resulting figure equals the available amount of cargo and luggage load capacity. For example, if the ''XXX'' amount equals 1400 lbs. and there will be five 150 lb. passengers in your vehicle, the amount of available cargo and luggage load capacity is 650 lbs. (1400-750 (5 x 150) = 650 lbs.)
    (5) Determine the combined weight of luggage and cargo being loaded on the vehicle. That weight may not safely exceed the available cargo and luggage load capacity calculated in Step 4.
    (6) If your vehicle will be towing a trailer, load from your trailer will be transferred to your vehicle. Consult this manual1 to determine how this reduces the available cargo and luggage load capacity of your vehicle.

    - Exceeding the permissible axle weight, gross vehicle weight, or any other weight rating limits can cause tire overheating resulting in permanent deformation or catastrophic failure.
    - Do not use replacement tires with lower load carrying capacities than the tires that were original equipment on the vehicle because this will lower the vehicle's GVW rating. Replacement tires with a higher limit than the originals do not increase the vehicle's GVW rating limitations.

    1. See "Towing a trailer" on page 122.

    pg. 131 Uniform Tire Quality Grading

    Uniform Tire Quality Grading
    Quality grades can be found, where applicable, on the tire sidewall between the tread shoulder and maximum section width. For example:
    Treadwear 200 Traction AA Temperature A

    The treadwear grade is a comparative rating based on the wear rate of the tire when tested under controlled conditions on a specified government test course. For example, a tire graded 150 would wear one and one half (1 1/2) times as well on the government course as a tire graded 100. The relative performance of tires depends upon the actual conditions of their use, however, and many depart significantly from the norm due to variation in driving habits, maintenance practices and differences in road characteristics and climate.

    The traction grades, from highest to lowest, are AA, A, B, and C, as measured under controlled conditions on specified government test surfaces of asphalt and concrete. A tire marked C may have poor traction performance. The traction grade assigned to this tire is based on braking (straight-ahead) traction tests and is not a measure of cornering (turning) traction.

    The traction grade assigned to this tire is based on braking (straight-ahead) traction tests and is not a measure of cornering (turning) traction.

    The temperature grades are AA (the highest), A, B, and C, representing the tire's resistance to the generation of heat and its ability to dissipate heat when tested under controlled conditions on a specified indoor laboratory test wheel. Sustained high temperature can cause the material of the tire to degenerate and reduce tire life, and excessive temperature can lead to sudden tire failure. The grade C corresponds to a minimum level of performance that all passenger vehicle tires must meet under the Federal Motor Safety Standard No. 109. Grades B and A represent higher levels of performance on the laboratory test wheel than the minimum required by law.

    The temperature grade for this tire is established for a tire that is properly inflated and not overloaded. Excessive speed, under-inflation, or excessive loading, either separately or in combination, can cause heat buildup and tire failure.

    pg. 132 Snow chains, snow tire, studded tires

    Snow chains
    Snow chains can be used on your Volvo with the following restrictions:

  • Snow chains should be installed on front wheels only. Use only Volvo approved snow chains.
  • If accessory, aftermarket or "custom" tires and wheels are installed and are of a size different than the original tires and wheels, chains in some cases CANNOT be used. Sufficient clearances between chains and brakes, suspension and body components must be maintained.
  • Some strap-on type chains will interfere with brake components and therefore CANNOT be used.
  • All Wheel Drive models: Snow chains should only be installed on the front wheels. Only chains adapted for AWD models should be used.

    Consult your Volvo retailer for additional snow chain information.


  • Check local regulations regarding the use of snow chains before installing.
  • Always follow the chain manufacturer's installation instructions carefully. Install chains as tightly as possible and retighten periodically.
  • Never exceed the chain manufacturer's specified maximum speed limit. (Under no circumstances should you exceed 31 mph
  • (50 km/h).
  • Avoid bumps, holes or sharp turns when driving with snow chains.
  • The handling of the vehicle can be adversely affected when driving with chains. Avoid fast or sharp turns as well as locked wheel braking.
  • Snow tires, studded tire1
    Tires for winter use:

  • Owners who live in or regularly commute through areas with sustained periods of snow or icy driving conditions are strongly advised to fit suitable winter tires to help retain the highest degree of traction.
  • It is important to install winter tires on all four wheels to help retain traction during cornering, braking, and accelerating. Failure to do so could reduce traction to an unsafe level or adversely affect handling.
  • Do not mix tires of different design as this could also negatively affect overall tire road grip.
  • Winter tires wear more quickly on dry roads in warm weather. They should be removed when the winter driving season has ended.
  • Studded tires should be run-in 300-600 miles (500-1000 km) during which the car should be driven as smoothly as possible to give the studs the opportunity to seat properly in the tires. The tires should have the same rotational direction throughout their entire lifetime.

    NOTE: Please consult state or provincial regulations restricting the use of studded winter tires before installing such tires.

    1. Where permitted

    pg. 133 Temporary Spare

    Temporary spare
    The spare tire in your vehicle is called a "temporary spare".

    Recommended tire pressure (see the placard on the B-pillar or on the fuel filler door) should be maintained irrespective of which position on the car the temporary spare tire is used on.

    In the event of damage to this tire, a new one can be purchased from your Volvo retailer.

    Current legislation prohibits the use of the "temporary spare" tire other than as a temporary replacement for a punctured tire. It must be replaced as soon as possible by a standard tire. Road holding and handling may be affected with the "temporary spare" in use. Do not exceed 50 m.p.h. (80 km/h). Do not drive farther than 50 miles (80 km) on a temporary spare tire.

    The car must not be driven with wheels of different dimensions or with a spare tire other than the one that came with the car. The use of different size wheels can seriously damage your car's transmission.

    pg. 134 Wheel nuts

    Low and high wheel nuts

    Wheel nuts
    There are two different types of wheel nut, depending on whether the wheels are steel or aluminum.

    Steel rims - low nut
    Steel rims are normally secured using the low type of nut, although steel rims may also use the high type.

    Never use the short type of nut for aluminium wheels. This could cause the wheel to come loose.

    Aluminum wheels - high nut
    Only the high type of nut can be used for aluminum wheels. This is considerably different from other types of nut because it has a rotating conical thrust washer.

    NOTE: This nut can also be used on steel wheels.

    Lockable wheel nut
    If steel wheels with lockable wheel nuts are used in combination with wheel covers, the lockable wheel nut must be fitted to the stud nearest the air valve. The wheel cover cannot otherwise be installed on the wheel.

    pg. 135 Changing a tire

    Changing a tire

    The arrow shows the direction of rotation of the tire

    Summer and winter tires

  • When switching between summer and winter tires, mark the tires to indicate where they were mounted on the car, e.g. LF = left front, RR = right rear
  • Tires with tread designed to roll in only one direction are marked with an arrow on the sidewall.
  • Incorrectly mounted tires impair the car's braking properties and ability to force aside rain, snow and slush.
  • The tires with the most tread should always be at the rear (to reduce the risk of skidding)
  • Wheels should be stored hanging up or on their sides, never standing.
  • Contact a Volvo workshop if you are unsure about the tread depth.

    pg. 136 Removing a wheel

    Removing a wheel

    The spare tire, jack, and crank are located under the carpet on the floor of the trunk.
    To change a tire:
    1. Engage the parking brake.
    2. Put the gear selector in (P)ark.
    3. Block the wheels that are on the ground with wooden blocks or large stones.
    4. Remove the wheel cap (where applicable) using the lug wrench in the tool bag.

    5. With the car still on the ground, use the lug wrench to loosen the wheel nuts 1/2 - 1 turn by exerting downward pressure. Turn the nuts counterclockwise to loosen.
    6. There are two jack attachment points on each side of the car. Position the jack correctly in the attachment (see illustration above) and crank while simultaneously guiding the base of the jack to the ground. The base of the jack must be flat on a level, firm, non-slippery surface. Before raising the car, check that the jack is still correctly positioned in the attachment.

    7. Raise the vehicle until the wheel to be changed is lifted off the ground.
    8. Unscrew the wheel bolts completely and carefully remove the wheel so as not to damage the threads on the studs.

    pg. 137 Removing a wheel

    The jack must correctly engage the jack attachment.
    Be sure the jack is on a firm, level, non-slippery surface.
    Never allow any part of your body to be extended under a car supported by a jack.
    Use the jack intended for the car when changing a tire. For any other job, use stands to support the car.
    Apply the parking brake and put the gear selector in the (P)ark position.
    Block the wheels standing on the ground, use rigid wooden blocks or large stones.
    The jack should be kept well-greased.

    Installing the wheel
    1. Clean the contact surfaces on the wheel and hub.
    2. Lift the wheel and place it on the hub.
    3. Install the wheel nuts and tighten hand-tight. Using the lug wrench, tighten crosswise until all nuts are snug.
    4. Lower the vehicle to the ground and alternately tighten the bolts crosswise to 62 ft. lbs. (85 Nm).

    5. Install the wheel cap (where applicable).

    Returning the jack and spare wheel to the storage space
    1. Crank the jack (1) down approximately halfway until the mark on the washer (2) aligns with the mark on the jack's arm (3).
    2. Place the jack in the storage space. Fold in the jack's crank (4) and place the lug wrench (5) on the jack.
    3. Screw the jack's retaining pin into hole 6 so that it holds the jack securely in place.
    4. Place the spare wheel (7) over the jack.
    5. Insert the spare wheel's retaining pin through the center hole in the spare wheel so that it aligns with hole 8. Screw the retaining pin into hole 8 so that it holds the spare wheel securely in place.

    pg. 138 This page intentionally left blank

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