BRAKE Brake circuit malfunction
The brake system is a hydraulic system consisting of two master cylinders and two separate brake circuits. If a problem should occur in one of these circuits, it is still possible to stop the vehicle with the other brake circuit.
If the brake pedal must be depressed farther than normal and requires greater foot pressure, the stopping distance will be longer.
A warning light in the instrument panel will light up to warn the driver that a fault has occurred.
If this light comes on while driving or braking, stop immediately and check the brake fluid level in the reservoir.
NOTE: Press the brake pedal hard and maintain pressure on the pedal - do not pump the brakes.
NOTE: When the vehicle is at a standstill and the engine is idling, e.g. at a traffic light and the brake pedal is depressed, the pedal may go down slightly. This is a normal function of the power-assisted brake system.
Power brakes function only when
the engine is running
The power brakes utilize vacuum pressure which is only created when the engine is running. Never let the vehicle roll to a stop with the engine switched off.
If the power brakes are not working, the brake pedal must be pressed approximately four times harder than usual to make up for the lack of power assistance. This can happen for example when towing your vehicle or if the engine is switched off when the vehicle is rolling. The brake pedal feels harder than usual.
Water on brake discs and brake
pads affects braking
Driving in rain and slush or passing through an automatic car wash can cause water to collect on the brake discs and pads. This will cause a delay in braking effect when the pedal is depressed. To avoid such a delay when the brakes are needed, depress the pedal occasionally when driving through rain, slush, etc. This will remove the water from the brakes. Check that brake application feels normal. This should also be done after washing or starting in very damp or cold weather.
Severe strain on the brake system
The brakes will be subject to severe strain when driving in mountains or hilly areas, or when towing a trailer. Vehicle speed is usually slower, which means that the cooling of the brakes is less efficient than when driving on level roads. To reduce the strain on the brakes, shift into a lower gear and let the engine help with the braking. Do not forget that if you are towing a trailer, the brakes will be subjected to a greater than normal load.
Anti-lock brakes (ABS)
If the warning lamp lights up there is a malfunction of the ABS system (the standard braking system will however function) and the vehicle should be driven cautiously to a Volvo retailer for inspection. The Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) helps to improve vehicle control (stopping and steering) during severe braking conditions by limiting brake lockup. When the system "senses" impending lockup, braking pressure is automatically modulated in order to help prevent lockup, which could lead to a skid.
This system performs a self-diagnostic test when the engine is started and when the vehicle first reaches a speed of approximately 12 mph (20 km/h). The brake pedal will pulsate several times and a sound may be audible from the ABS control module. This is normal.
To obtain optimal effect from the ABS system, constant pressure should be kept on the brake pedal. Do not pump the brake pedal.
The switching of the ABS modulator will be audible and the brake pedal will pulsate during braking. Please be aware that ABS does not increase the absolute braking potential of the vehicle. While control will be enhanced, ABS will not shorten stopping distances on slippery surfaces.
ABS with EBD (Electronic Brake
EBD is an integrated part of the ABS system. EBD regulates the hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes to help provide optimal braking capacity. The brake pedal will pulsate during braking, which is normal.
If the BRAKE and ABS warning lights come on at the same time, this could indicate a fault in the brake system.
The DSTC system on the Volvo XC90 consists of a number of functions:
1. Traction control (TC)
This function is designed to help reduce wheel spin by transferring power from a drive wheel that begins to lose traction to the wheel on the opposite side of the vehicle (on the same axle). TC monitors and compares the rotational speed of the drive wheels. If one of the drive wheels shows a tendency to spin, the difference in speed is immediately detected. This triggers the Anti-lock Brake System, which brakes the spinning wheel until the difference in rotational speed is corrected.
TC is most active at low speeds, and a pulsating sound will be audible when the system is regulating wheel spin. This is quite normal.
This is one of the DSTC system's permanent functions and is not affected when the DSTC button on the center control panel is pressed.
2. Spin control (SC)
The spin control function is designed to help prevent the drive wheels from spinning while the vehicle is accelerating. This is done by temporarily reducing engine torque to the drive wheels, which helps improve tractive force.
Under certain circumstances, such as when driving with snow chains, or driving in deep snow or loose sand, it may be advisable to temporarily switch off this function for maximum tractive force. This is done by pressing the DSTC button on the center control panel for at least a half a second.
When the SC function has been switched off:
3. Active Yaw Control (AYC)
This function helps maintain directional stability, for example when cornering, by braking one or more of the wheels if the vehicle shows a tendency to skid or slide laterally. This is done by activating the Anti-lock Braking System. A pulsating sound will be audible when the function is active, which is quite normal. If you apply the brakes while this function is active, the brake pedal will feel stiffer than usual.
This is also one of the DSTC system's permanent functions and is not affected when the DSTC button on the center control panel is pressed.
4. Roll Stability Control (RSC)
RSC utilizes a gyro-sensor to monitor the vehicle's angle of inclination, and the rate at which this angle changes. If necessary, RSC activates the Anti-lock Brake System to brake one or more of the wheels to help maintain stability. A pulsating sound will be audible when the function is active, which is quite normal. If you apply the brakes while this function is active, the brake pedal will feel stiffer than usual.
This is one of the DSTC system's permanent functions and is not affected when the DSTC button on the center control panel is pressed.
The DSTC button
The DSTC button in the center control panel is used to switch the Spin Control (SC) function on or off.
The button must be pressed for at least a half second to prevent SC from being switched off inadvertently.
When the system has been switched off, the green indicator lamp in the button will go out and "DSTC SPIN CONTROL OFF" will be displayed in the text window.
All DSTC functions are (re)activated each time the engine is started.
The Stability Control
indicator light will flash when:
The warning symbol in the
A steady yellow glow indicates:
Emergency Brake Assistance (EBA)
The EBA function is an integrated part of the DSTC system. EBA is designed to provide full brake effect immediately in the event of sudden, hard braking. The system is activated by the speed with which you depress the brake pedal.
Front/rear park assist
The park assist system(s) are designed to assist you when driving into parking spaces, garages, etc. They utilize ultrasound sensors located in the bumpers to measure the distance to a vehicle or other object, or a person who may be close to the front or rear of the vehicle.
When is park assist active?
Front: the system is active from the time the engine is started until the car exceeds a speed of approximately 10 mph (15 km/h).
Rear: when the engine is running and reverse gear is selected.
When park assist is actively working:
1. The audio system's volume will be reduced.
2. An intermittent signal will be audible from the speakers to indicate that you are approaching a person, object, parked vehicle, etc.
The signals begin when the distance between the bumper and the object is:
Rear: approximately 5 feet (1.5 meters)
Front: approximately 2.5 ft (0.8 meters).
3. At a distance of approximately 1 foot (30 cm), the signal will become constant.
Deactivating the system(s)
1. Press the Park assist button on the center console (see page 32) to temporarily deactivate the system(s).
2. The indicator light in the button will go out when the system(s) have been deactivated.
3. If the vehicle is equipped with front and rear park assist, both systems will be deactivated by pressing the button.
NOTE: It may be necessary to deactivate one or both of the park assist systems in certain cases.
Faults in the system
If a fault should occur in the system, the LED in the button will be switched off and a message will be displayed in the text window.
Cleaning the sensors
For the system to function properly, the sensors in the front and/or rear bumpers should be kept clean. They can be cleaned with car washing detergent and a sponge.
The towing eyelet is located in the tool bag, under the floor of the cargo area. This eyelet must be screwed into the positions provided on the right sides of either the front or rear bumper (see illustrations).
To attach the towing eyelet:
A Use a coin to pry open the lower edge of the cover (A).
B Screw the towing eyelet (C) in place (B), first by hand and then using the tire iron until it is securely in place.
After the vehicle has been towed, the eyelet should be removed and returned to the tool bag. Press the cover back into position.
Precautions when the vehicle is in tow
Towing vehicles with front wheel
drive/All Wheel Drive
Volvo recommends the use of flat bed equipment.
If wheel lift equipment must be used, please use extreme caution to help avoid damage to the vehicle. In this case, the vehicle should be towed with the rear wheels on the ground if at all possible.
If it is absolutely necessary to tow the vehicle with the front wheels on the ground, please refer to the towing information on the previous page.
Follow these instructions to jump start your vehicle's dead battery or to jump start another vehicle's dead battery using your vehicle.
Although your vehicle's battery is located under the floor of the cargo area, jumper cables should be connected in the engine compartment, to the points shown in the illustrations.
If the 12-volt auxiliary battery to be used is in another vehicle, check that the vehicles are not touching to prevent premature completion of a circuit. Be sure to follow jump starting instructions provided for the other vehicle.
To jump start your vehicle:
- Do not smoke near the battery.
- Batteries generate hydrogen gas, which is flammable and explosive.
- Battery fluid contains sulphuric acid. Do not allow battery fluid to contact eyes, skin, fabrics or painted surfaces. If contact occurs, flush the affected area immediately with water. Obtain medical help immediately if eyes are affected.
- Failure to follow the instructions for jump starting can lead to personal injury.
The maximum weights recommended by Volvo for trailers with brakes are shown in the table below.
|No. of occupants||1||2||3||4||5||6||7|
|Seating position||Front seat||Front seat||2nd row of seats||2nd row of seats||2nd row of seats||Optional 3rd row of seats||Optional 3rd row of seats|
|All Wheel Drive||5,000 lbs (2250 kg)||5,000 lbs (2250 kg)||4,500 lbs (2050 kg)||3,700 lbs (1700 kg)||2,900 lbs (1350 kg)||1,800 lbs (800 kg)||Trailer towing not recommended|
|Max. trailer hitch tongue load||500 lbs (225 kg)||500 lbs (225 kg)||450 lbs (205 kg)||370 lbs (170 kg)||290 lbs (135 kg)||180 lbs (80 kg)||-|
|Front Wheel Drive||4,000 lbs (1800 kg)||4,000 lbs (1800 kg)||4,000 lbs (1800 kg)||4,000 lbs (1800 kg)||3,700 lbs (1650 kg)||2,500 lbs (1150 kg)||1,400 lbs (650 kg)|
|Max. trailer hitch tongue load||400 lbs (180 kg)||400 lbs (180 kg)||400 lbs (180 kg)||400 lbs (180 kg)||370 lbs (165 kg)||250 lbs (115 kg)||140 lbs (65 kg)|
- When parking the vehicle with a trailer on a hill, apply the parking brake before putting the gear selector in (P)ark. When starting on a hill, put the gear selector in (D)rive before releasing the parking brake.
- If you use the manual (Geartronic) shift positions while towing a trailer, make sure the gear you select does not put too much strain on the engine (using too high a gear).
If your vehicle is equipped with automatic levelling, the rear suspension always retains the correct ride height regardless of the load.
Installing the ball holder
1. If necessary, remove the cotter pin from the locking bolt and slide the locking bolt out of the hitch assembly.
2. Slide the ball holder into the hitch assembly.
3. Align the hole in the ball holder with the one in the hitch assembly.
4. Slide the locking bolt through the hitch assembly/ball holder.
5. Insert the cotter pin in the hole at the end of the locking bolt.
Removing the ball holder
1. Remove the cotter pin from the locking bolt and slide the locking bolt out of the ball holder/hitch assembly.
2. Pull the ball holder out of the hitch assembly.
NOTE: A cover for the hitch assembly can be purchased from your Volvo retailer.
Positioning the load carriers
Make sure that the wing-shaped load carriers are installed on the roof rails with the rounded edge forward (see the inset illustration above). The load carriers are identical and can be placed anywhere along the roof rails.
When not in use, we recommend that the front load carrier be placed approximately 2 inches (5 cm) in front of the center roof rail anchorage point and the rear load carrier approximately 1.5 inches (3.5 cm) in front of the rear rail anchorage. This will help to reduce wind noise.
NOTE: Volvo accessories mounted on these load carriers will require T-track mounting hardware for correct installation. Please consult your Volvo retailer.
Installing the load carriers
Make sure that the load carrier is pressed firmly out against the roof rail. Screw the load carrier in place. Use the supplied torque wrench and tighten to the mark on the wrench (corresponding to 6 Nm). See illustration.
Load carrier cover
The vehicle's ignition key or the stud on the edge of the supplied torque wrench can be used to undo or tighten the cover. Turn a quarter turn (90 degrees). See illustration.
If you wish to check your vehicle before the approach of cold weather, the following advice is worth noting:
NOTE: Avoid the use of de-icing sprays as they can cause damage to the locks.
W Winter/Wet driving mode-enhanced vehicle traction
* Synthetic oil is not used when the oil is changed at the normal maintenance intervals except at owner request and at additional charge. Please consult your Volvo retailer.
It is always worthwhile to have your vehicle checked at a Volvo retailer before driving long distances. Your retailer will also be able to supply you with bulbs, fuses, spark plugs and wiper blades for your use in the event that problems occur.
As a minimum, the following items should be checked before any long trip:
* To prevent injury from contact with hot
surfaces, do not inspect your vehicle's transmission
fluid yourself. Have your vehicle's
transmission fluid level inspected by a qualified
Volvo service technician.