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VOLVO
XC90

Wheels and tires

pg. 107 Wheels and tires

General information 108
Tire pressure 110
Tread wear indicators 111
Uniform Tire Quality Grading 112
Changing wheels 113

pg. 108 Wheels and tires

General information

General information about wheels and tires
Your vehicle is equipped with tires according to the tire information label on the inside of the fuel filler door.

All tires have a dimension designation. The following is an example of a tire designation: 225/70R16.
225 section width (mm)
70 relationship between section height and width
R radial tire
16 wheel rim diameter (inches)

The tires have good road holding characteristics and offer good handling on dry and wet surfaces. It should be noted however that the tires have been developed to give these features on snow/ice-free surfaces.

Certain models are equipped with "all-season" tires, which provide a somewhat higher degree of road holding on slippery surfaces than tires without the "all-season" rating.

However, for optimum road holding on icy or snow-covered roads, we recommend suitable winter tires on all four wheels. When replacing tires, be sure that the new tires are the same size designation, type (radial) and preferably from the same manufacturer, on all four wheels. Otherwise there is a risk of altering the vehicle's roadholding and handling characteristics.

NOTE: When storing wheel/tire assemblies (e.g. winter tires and wheels), either stand the assemblies upright, or suspend them off the ground. Laying wheel/tire assemblies on their sides for prolonged periods can cause wheel and/or tire damage.

New tires
Remember that tires are perishable goods. As of 2000, manufacturing year and week will be indicated with 4 digits (e.g. 1502 means that the tire is manufactured year 2002, week 15).

Improving tire economy:

  • Maintain correct tire pressure. See the tire pressure label on the inside of the fuel filler door.
  • Drive smoothly: avoid fast starts, hard braking and tire screeching.
  • Tire wear increases with speed.
  • Correct front wheel alignment is very important.
  • Unbalanced wheels impair tire economy and driving comfort.
  • If tires are rotated, they must be kept on the same side of the vehicle so that they revolve in the same direction as before rotation.
  • Hitting curbs or potholes can damage the tires and/or wheels permanently.

    Flat spots
    All tires become warm during use. After cooling, when the vehicle is parked, the tires have a tendency to distort slightly, forming flat spots. These flat spots can cause vibrations similar to the vibrations caused by unbalanced wheels. They do, however, disappear when the tire warms up. The degree to which flat spots form depends on the type of cord used in the tire. In cold weather, it takes longer for the tire to warm up and consequently longer for the flat spot to disappear.

    CAUTION
    The vehicle must not be driven with wheels of different dimensions or with a spare tire other than the one that came with the vehicle. The use of different size wheels can seriously damage your vehicle's transmission.

    pg. 109 Wheels and tires

    Snow chains
    Snow chains can be used on your Volvo with the following restrictions:

  • Snow chains should be installed on front wheels only. Use only Volvo approved snow chains.
  • If accessory, aftermarket or "custom" tires and wheels are installed and are of a size different than the original tires and wheels, chains in some cases CANNOT be used. Sufficient clearances between chains and brakes, suspension and body components must be maintained.
  • Some strap-on type chains will interfere with brake components and therefore CANNOT be used.
  • All Wheel Drive models: Snow chains should only be installed on the front wheels. Only chains adapted for AWD models should be used.

    NOTE: Consult your Volvo retailer for additional snow chain information.

    CAUTION
    - Check local regulations regarding the use of snow chains before installing. Always follow the chain manufacturer's installation instructions carefully. Install chains as tightly as possible and retighten periodically.
    - Never exceed the chain manufacturer's specified maximum speed limit. (Under no circumstances should you exceed 31 mph 50 km/h)
    - Avoid bumps, holes or sharp turns when driving with snow chains.
    - The handling of the vehicle can be adversely affected when driving with chains. Avoid fast or sharp turns as well as locked wheel braking.

    Snow tires, studded tires*
    Tires for winter use:

    Owners who live in or regularly commute through areas with sustained periods of snow or icy driving conditions are strongly advised to fit suitable winter tires to help retain the highest degree of traction.

    It is important to install winter tires on all four wheels to help retain traction during cornering, braking, and accelerating. Failure to do so could reduce traction to an unsafe level or adversely affect handling. Do not mix tires of different design as this could also negatively affect overall tire road grip.

    Volvo recommends 225/70 R16 (235/65 R17 on seven-seat models with the T6 turbo engine) winter tires on all four wheels.

    Winter tires wear more quickly on dry roads in warm weather. They should be removed when the winter driving season has ended.

    Studded tires should be run-in 300 - 600 miles (500 - 1000 km) during which the vehicle should be driven as smoothly as possible to give the studs the opportunity to seat properly in the tires. The tires should have the same rotational direction throughout their entire lifetime. In other words, if you wish to rotate the wheels, make sure that the same wheels are always on the same side of the vehicle.

    NOTE: Please consult state or provincial regulations restricting the use of studded winter tires before installing such tires.

    * Where permitted

    pg. 110 Wheels and tires

    Tire pressure


    Tire pressure label

    Checking and correcting tire pressure
    The tire pressure label is located on the inside of the fuel filler door.

  • Check the tire pressure regularly.
  • The tire pressure should be corrected only when the tires are cold.
  • With warm tires, correct only when the pressure is too low. The tire temperature rises after driving just a few miles.

    Vehicle loading
    The tires on your Volvo will perform to specifications at all normal loads when inflated as recommended on the tire information label located on the inside of the fuel filler door. This label lists both tire and vehicle design limits. Do not load your vehicle beyond the load limits indicated.

    warningWARNING!
    Improperly inflated tires will reduce tire life, adversely affect vehicle handling and can possibly lead to failure resulting in loss of vehicle control without prior warning.

    Temporary Spare
    The spare tire in your vehicle is called a "Temporary Spare".

    Recommended tire pressure (see decal on Fuel filler door) should be maintained irrespective which position on the vehicle the Temporary Spare tire is used on. In the event of damage this tire, a new one can be purchased from your Volvo retailer.

    warningWARNING!
    Current legislation prohibits the use of the Temporary Spare" tire other than as a temporary replacement for a punctured tire. It must be replaced as soon as possible by a standard tire. Road holding and handling may be affected with the "Temporary Spare" in use. Do not exceed 50 mph (80 km/h). Do not drive farther than 50 miles (80 km) on a temporary spare tire.

    CAUTION
    The vehicle must not be driven with wheels of different dimensions or with a spare tire other than the one that came with the vehicle. The use of different size wheels can seriously damage your vehicle's transmission.

    The temporary spare tire is for temporary, low-speed, short-distance use only. Replace it with a full-sized tire as soon as possible, in accordance with "Tire Rotation" in the previous paragraph. Do not drive on the temporary spare at speeds above 50 m.p.h. (80km/h) or for distances greater than 50 miles (80 km).

    Never install snow chains on a temporary spare.

    NOTE: Certain models may be equipped with a full-size spare tire. When used, it should be inflated to the same pressure as the tire it is replacing.

    Tire Rotation
    Volvo recommends rotating the tires every 7,500 miles (12,000 km). Tires should be rotated front-to-back/back-to-front only. Tires must maintain the same direction of rotation throughout their lifetime, and should never be rotated from one side of the vehicle to the other.

    pg. 111 Wheels and tires

    Tire wear indicators

    Tires have tread wear indicators
    The tires have wear indicator strips running across or parallel to the tread. When approx. 1/16 inches (1.6 mm) is left on the tread, these strips become visible and indicate that the tire should be replaced.

    Tires with less than 1/16" (1.6 mm) tread have a very poor grip in rain or snow.

    When replacing worn tires, it is recommended that the tire be identical in type (radial) and size as the one being replaced. Using a tire of the same make (manufacturer) will prevent alteration of the driving characteristics of the vehicle.

    pg. 112 Wheels and tires

    Uniform Tire Quality Grading

    ALL PASSENGER VEHICLE TIRES MUST CONFORM TO FEDERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS IN ADDITION TO THESE GRADES

    Quality grades can be found, where applicable, on the tire sidewall between the tread shoulder and maximum section width. For example:
    Treadwear 200 Traction AA Temperature A

    TREADWEAR
    The treadwear grade is a comparative rating based on the wear rate of the tire when tested under controlled conditions on a specified government test course. For example, a tire graded 150 would wear one and one half (1 1/2) times as well on the government course as a tire graded 100. The relative performance of tires depends upon the actual conditions of their use, however, and many depart significantly from the norm due to variation in driving habits, maintenance practices and differences in road characteristics and climate.

    TRACTION
    The traction grades, from highest to lowest, are AA, A, B, and C, as measured under controlled conditions on specified government test surfaces of asphalt and concrete. A tire marked C may have poor traction performance.

    warningWARNING!
    The traction grade assigned to this tire is based on braking (straight-ahead) traction tests and is not a measure of cornering (turning) traction.

    TEMPERATURE
    The temperature grades are AA (the highest), A, B, and C, representing the tire's resistance to the generation of heat and its ability to dissipate heat when tested under controlled conditions on specified indoor laboratory test wheel. Sustained high temperature can cause the material of the tire to degenerate and reduce tire life, and excessive temperature can lead to sudden tire failure. The grade C corresponds to minimum level of performance that all passenger vehicle tires must meet under the Federal Motor Safety Standard No. 109. Grades B and A represent higher levels of performance on the laboratory test wheel than the minimum required by law.

    warningWARNING!
    The temperature grade for this tire is established for a tire that is properly inflated and not overloaded. Excessive speed, under-inflation, or excessive loading, either separately or in combination, can cause heat buildup and possible tire failure.

    pg. 113 Wheels and tires

    Changing wheels


    Location of jack - five-seat models
    The jack and rear section of the crank are stored under the forward-most section of the floor in the cargo area (or to the right under the rear section of the cargo area floor on certain models). Lift the appropriate section of the floor and release the retaining strap to lift out the jack and crank.

    The tool bag is stored under the rear section of the cargo area floor. The front section of the crank is stored in this bag.

    If the vehicle is equipped with the optional grocery bag holder:

    Fold up the rear section of the cargo area floor, disconnect the grocery bag holder's retaining cords and fold up the lower section of the floor to access the tool bag.


    Location of jack - seven-seat models
    The jack, rear section of the crank, and tool bag are stored under the rear section of the cargo area floor.
    To use the jack, release the retaining strap and slide it rearward.
    The crank is located near the battery and is held in place by plastic clips.
    The front section of the crank is stored in the tool bag.
    If the vehicle is equipped with the optional grocery bag holder:

    Fold up the rear section of the cargo area floor, disconnect the grocery bag holder's retaining cords and fold up the lower section of the floor.


    CAUTION: Seven-seat models: Do not store objects in the area for the rear seat cushions (when the backrests are to be folded down). This could damage the cushions.

    pg. 114 Wheels and tires

    Changing wheels


    Lowering the spare wheel

    Changing wheels - lowering the spare wheel
    The spare wheel is located under the floor of the rear cargo compartment. It can be lowered using the crank (see previous page for location).

    warningWARNING!
    When raising or lowering the spare wheel, please keep in mind that components in the exhaust system may be very hot.

    Lowering the spare wheel:
    1. Fold down the lower section of the tailgate.
    2. Fold up the rear section of the floor in the cargo compartment.
    3. Connect the two sections of the jack's crank.
    4. Insert the hooked end of the crank in the spare wheel retaining attachment (see the illustration above).
    5. Lower the spare wheel under the vehicle by turning the crank counterclockwise until it is not possible to turn it further.
    6. Pivot the toggle at the end of the cable 90 degrees to release it from the spare wheel.
    7. Crank up the cable again by turning the crank clockwise.
    8. Place the wheel with the flat tire in the vehicle's cargo compartment.

    CAUTION
    When the spare wheel is mounted on the vehicle, the retaining cable could damage the underside of the vehicle if it is not retracted.


    Returning the spare wheel to its storage compartment

    NOTE: The space under the vehicle is designed to hold the special spare wheel only. Other fullsize wheels will not fit in this compartment.

    Returning the spare wheel to the storage compartment
    1. Use the crank (turn it counterclockwise) to lower the spare wheel's retaining cable.
    2. Pass the toggle at the end of the cable through the center hole in the spare wheel. Pivot the toggle 90 degrees so that when raised, the wheel will rest on the toggle.
    3. Retract the retaining cable slightly by slowly turning the crank clockwise several times.
    4. Position the wheel so that it is not obstructed by components in the exhaust system.
    5. Continue to raise the wheel by turning the crank clockwise.Raise the wheel a little bit at a time and guide it around the rear axle until it is securely seated in the storage area.
    6. When it is no longer possible to turn the crank any further, check that the spare wheel is securely in position in the storage compartment.

    pg. 115 Wheels and tires


    Jack attachment points

    Changing a wheel
    There are two attachment points for the jack on each side of the vehicle. These attachment points are under the center of each door.

    warningWARNING!
    - There is an attachment point on each side of the vehicle located under the pillars between the front and rear doors. This point is used during the production process only, and is NOT intended for attaching the jack.
    -The undersides of accessory running boards are not intended for attaching the jack.

    To change a wheel:
    1. Park the vehicle on a firm, level, non-slippery surface.
    2. Engage the parking brake and put the gear selector in the Park position.
    3. Loosen the wheel bolts by exerting downward pressure on the lug wrench.
    4. Remove the wheel cap (where applicable) using the lug wrench in the tool bag.
    5. With the wheels still on the ground, use the lug wrench to loosen the wheel bolts 1/2 - 1 turn. Turn the bolts counterclockwise to loosen the bolts.

    CAUTION
    - The vehicle must not be driven with wheels of different dimensions or with a spare tire other than the one that came with the vehicle. The use of different size wheels can seriously damage your vehicle's transmission.
    - Correct tightening torque on wheel bolts must be observed.
    - The wheel bolts should never be greased or lubricated.
    - Extended, chromed wheel bolts must not be used with steel rims, as they make it impossible to fit the hub caps.

    warningWARNING!
    The use of an incorrect type of wheel bolt could cause the wheel to loosen from the hub. Contact your Volvo retailer if you are uncertain as to the type of wheel bolt that should be used on your vehicle.

    pg. 116 Wheels and tires


    Attaching the jack
  • Place the jack on the ground, under one of the attachment points (see the illustration on the previous page) and crank while simultaneously guiding the jack's attachment bracket onto the attachment point (see illustration above) The base of the jack must be flat on a level, firm, non-slippery surface. Before raising the vehicle, check that the jack is still correctly positioned in the attachment.
  • Raise the vehicle until the wheel to be changed is lifted off the ground.
  • Unscrew the wheel bolts completely and carefully remove the wheel so as not to damage the threads on the studs.

    NOTE: To avoid excessive wear and the necessity of rebalancing, mark and reinstall wheels in the same location and position as before removal. To lessen the chance of imbalance, each wheel hub is equipped with a guide stud to ensure that a removed wheel can be reinstalled in its original position (as when changing over to winter tires/wheels).

    Installing the wheel

  • Clean the contact surfaces on the wheel and hub.
  • Lift the wheel and place it on the hub.
  • Install the wheel bolts and tighten handtight. Using the lug wrench, tighten crosswise until all bolts are snug.
  • Lower the vehicle to the ground and alternately tighten the bolts crosswise to 102 ft. lbs. (140 Nm).
  • Install the wheel cap (where applicable).

    warningWARNING!
    - The jack must correctly engage the bar in the jack attachment. The vehicle's weight must not rest on the jack attachment. See illustration "Attaching the jack" above. Be sure the jack is on a firm, level, non-slippery surface.
    - Never allow any part of your body to be extended under a vehicle supported by a jack.
    - Use the jack intended for the vehicle when replacing a wheel. For any other job, use stands to support the side of the vehicle being worked on.
    - Apply the parking brake and put the gear selector in the (P)ark position (or reverse on manual transmissions).
    - Block the wheels standing on the ground, use rigid wooden blocks or large stones. The jack should be kept well-greased.




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