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VOLVO
S40 & V40

pg. 74 Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD)



Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD)
EBD is an integrated part of the ABS system. EBD regulates the hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes to help provide optimal braking capacity.

If the Brake failure warning light and ABS warning light come on at the same time, this could indicate a fault in the brake system. If the brake fluid level is above the lowest MIN mark, drive carefully to an authorized Volvo retailer and have the brake system inspected.

WARNING!
If the fluid level is below the lower MIN mark in the reservoir, DO NOT DRIVE. Have the car towed to an authorized Volvo retailer and have the brake system inspected.

pg. 75 Winter driving, Long distance trips



Cold weather precautions
If you wish to check your car before the approach of cold weather, the following advice is worth noting:

  • Make sure that the engine coolant contains 50 percent antifreeze: that is, 3.2 qts. (3 liters) Volvo Genuine Coolant/Antifreeze. This gives protection against freezing down to -31°F (-35°C). See section "Coolant". The use of "recycled" antifreeze is not approved by Volvo. Different types of antifreeze may not be mixed.
  • Try to keep the fuel tank well filled - this prevents the formation of condensation in the tank. In addition, in extremely cold weather conditions it is worthwhile to add fuel line de-icer before refueling.
  • The viscosity of the engine oil is important. Oil with low viscosity (thinner oil) improves cold-weather starting as well as decreasing fuel consumption while the engine is warming up. For winter use, 5W-30 oil, particularly the synthetic type *, is recommended. Be sure to use good quality oil but do not use this cold-weather oil for hard driving or in warm weather. See section "Engine oil" for more information.
  • The load placed on the battery is greater during the winter since the windshield wipers, lighting, etc. are used more often. Moreover, the capacity of the battery decreases as the temperature drops. In very cold weather, a poorly charged battery can freeze and be damaged. It is therefore advisable to check the state of charge more frequently and spray an anti-rust oil on the battery posts.
  • Volvo recommends the use of snow tires on all four wheels for winter driving - see section "Wheels and tires".
  • To prevent the washer fluid reservoir from freezing, add washer solvents containing antifreeze (see page 118 for the location of the
    washer fluid reservoir). This is important since dirt is often splashed on the windshield during winter driving, requiring the frequent use of the washers and wipers. The Volvo Washer Solvent should be diluted as follows:
    Down to 14° F (-10° C): 1 part washer solvent and 4 parts water
    Down to 5° F (-15° C): 1 part washer solvent and 3 parts water
    Down to 0° F (-18° C): 1 part washer solvent and 2 parts water
    Down to -18° F (-28° C): 1 part washer solvent and 1 part water
  • When driving in temperatures below 15° F (-10° C), we recommend the use of Volvo's radiator guard to help the engine reach normal operating temperature as quickly as possible. This guard should not be used when towing a trailer.
  • Use Volvo Teflon Lock Spray in the locks.
  • Power steering fluid: Use Pentosin CHF 11 S if your car is used mainly in areas with temperatures below freezing.

    NOTE: Avoid the use of de-icing sprays as they can cause damage to the locks.

    * Synthetic oil is not used when the oil is changed at the normal maintenance service intervals.

    Before a long distance trip
    It is always worthwhile to have your car checked at a Volvo retailer before driving long distances. Your retailer will also be able to supply you with bulbs, fuses, spark plugs and wiper blades for your use in the event that problems occur.
    If you prefer to check the car yourself, please note the following:

  • Check that engine runs smoothly and that fuel consumption is normal.
  • Check fuel, oil and fluid leakage.
  • Check condition of accessory drive belts.
  • Check state of charge of battery.
  • Examine tires carefully (the spare tire as well), and replace those that are worn. Check tire pressures.
  • The brakes, front wheel alignment, and steering gear should be checked by your Volvo retailer only.
  • Check all lights, including high beams.
  • Reflective warning triangles are legal requirement in some states.
  • Have a word with your Volvo retailer if you intend to drive in countries where it may be difficult to obtain correct fuel.
  • Consider your destination. If you will be driving on snowy or icy roads, consider snow tires.

    pg. 76 Detachable trailer hitch - installing



    pg. 77 Detachable trailer hitch - removing



    pg. 78 Trailer towing



    When preparing for trailer towing, observe the following:
    Maximum trailer weight recommended by Volvo is:

  • Trailers without brakes: 1000 lbs (455 kg)
  • Trailers with brakes: 2000 lbs (908 kg),
  • Max tongue load:
      (w/o brakes) 110 lbs (50 kg)
      (with brakes) 165 lbs (75 kg)

    Observe the legal requirements of the state/province in which the vehicles are registered.
    All Volvo models are equipped with energy-absorbing shock-mounted bumpers. Trailer hitch installation should not interfere with the proper operation of this bumper system.

  • Gradients over 12% or at heights over 3000ft (1000 m).
    Deduct 220 lbs (100 kg) from the maximum permitted trailer weight for each additional 1500 ft (500 m) or each additional 1% gradient.
  • Do not attempt to drive gradients steeper than 15% with a trailer. The load on the powered wheels/front wheels is then so low that they may slip and bring the car to a standstill. Do not rely on the handbrake alone to hold the car stationary when it has a trailer attached: the wheels may slide along the ground. Chock the wheels with blocks or stones.
  • Volvo recommends the use of Volvo trailer hitches which are specially designed for the car. For trailer weights exceeding 2000 lbs (908 kg), use only a trailer hitch offered as a Genuine Volvo Accessory.

    Trailer towing does not normally present any particular problems, but take into consideration:

  • Increase tire pressure to recommended full. See section "Wheels and tires".
  • Engine and transmission are subject to increased loads. Therefore, engine coolant temperature should be closely watched when driving in hot climates or hilly terrain. Use a lower gear and turn off the air conditioner if the temperature gauge pointer enters the red range.
  • Avoid overload and other abusive operation.
  • Hauling a trailer affects handling, durability, and fuel economy.
  • It is necessary to balance trailer brakes with the towing vehicle brakes to provide a safe stop (check and observe State/Local regulations).
  • Do not connect the trailer's brake system directly to the vehicle's brake system.
  • More frequent vehicle maintenance is required.
  • Remove the ball and drawbar assembly when the hitch is not being used.
  • Volvo recommends the use of synthetic engine oil when towing a trailer over long distances or in mountainous areas.

    NOTE: Refer to section "Automatic transmission" for additional trailer hauling tips.

    WARNING!

  • Bumper attached trailer hitches must not be used on Volvos, nor should safety chains be attached to the bumper.
  • Trailer hitches attaching to the vehicle rear axle must not be used.
  • Never connect a trailer's hydraulic brake system directly to the vehicle brake system, nor a trailer's lighting system directly to the vehicle lighting system. Consult your nearest authorized Volvo retailer for correct installation.
  • When towing a trailer, the trailer's safety wire must be correctly fastened to the hole or hook provided in the trailer hitch on the car. The safety wire should never be fastened to or wound around the drawbar ball.
  • NOTE: The car is equipped with a transmission oil cooler as standard equipment. This cooler helps prevent overheating of the transmission during times of increased load, as when towing a trailer.



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