2 0 0 2
VOLVO
S60

Starting and driving

pg. 127 Starting and driving

Refueling 128
Starting the car 131
General information 133
Manual transmission 135
Automatic transmission (option) 136
Geartronic (option ) 138
All Wheel Drive (option) 140
Brake system 141
Stability system 143
Towing 145
Jump starting 147
Towing a trailer 148
Detachable trailer hitch - installing 150
Detachable trailer hitch - removing 151
Attaching load carriers 152
Cold weather precautions 153
Before a long distance trip 154

pg. 128 Refueling

ENGINE OIL
Although some oil consumption occurs during normal engine operation, more oil is consumed when the engine is new as the internal parts generate higher friction while wearing- in to each other. From the time the engine is new until the first service is performed, the oil consumption could be higher than normal. For this reason, it is especially important to check the oil every time you refuel your car during this period. See page 174.

Fuel requirements
Octane rating

Volvo engines are designed for optimum performance on unleaded premium gasoline with an AKI octane rating of 91 or above. AKI (ANTI KNOCK INDEX) is an average of the Research Octane Number, RON, and the Motor Octane Number, MON. (RON + MON/2). The minimum octane requirement is AKI 87 (RON 91).

Deposit control gasoline (detergent additives)
Volvo recommends the use of gasoline containing deposit control additives. These additives have shown to be effective in keeping injectors and intake valves clean. Consistent use of deposit control gasolines will help ensure good driveability and fuel economy. If you are not sure whether the gasoline contains deposit control additives, check with the service station operator.

NOTE: Volvo does not recommend the use of external fuel injector cleaning systems. Unleaded fuel Each Volvo has a three-way catalytic converter and must use only unleaded gasoline. U. S. and Canadian regulations require that pumps delivering unleaded gasoline be labeled "UNLEADED". Only these pumps have nozzles which fit your car's filler inlet. It is unlawful to dispense leaded fuel into a vehicle labeled "unleaded gasoline only". Leaded gasoline damages the three-way catalytic converter and the heated oxygen sensor system. Repeated use of leaded gasoline will lessen the effectiveness of the emission control system and could result in loss of emission warranty coverage. State and local vehicle inspection programs will make detection of misfueling easier, possibly resulting in emission test failure for misfueled vehicles.

NOTE: Some U. S. and Canadian gasolines contain an octane enhancing additive called methyl-cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT). If such fuels are used, your Emission Control System performance may be affected, and the Check Engine Light (malfunction indicator lamp) located on your instrument panel may light. If this occurs, please return your vehicle to an authorized Volvo retailer for service.

Gasoline containing alcohol and ethers
"Oxygenated fuels"

Some fuel suppliers sell gasoline containing "oxygenates" which are usually alcohols or ethers. In some areas, state or local laws require that the service pump be marked indicating use of alcohols or ethers. However, there are areas in which the pumps are unmarked. If you are not sure whether there is alcohol or ethers in the gasoline you buy, check with the service station operator. To meet seasonal air quality standards, some areas require the use of "oxygenated" fuel.

Volvo allows the use of the following "oxygenated" fuels; however, the octane ratings listed on this page must still be met.

Alcohol - Ethanol: Fuels containing up to 10% ethanol by volume may be used. Ethanol may also be referred to as Ethyl alcohol, or "Gasohol".

Ethers - MTBE: Fuels containing up to 15% MTBE may be used.

pg. 129 Refueling

Carbon Monoxide - Important Warning
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous, colorless, and odorless gas. It is present in all exhaust gases. If you ever smell exhaust fumes inside the vehicle, make sure the passenger compartment is ventilated, and immediately return the vehicle to your retailer for correction.

Fuel Formulations
Do not use gasoline that contains lead as a knock inhibitor, and do not use lead additives. Besides damaging the exhaust emission control systems on your car, lead has been strongly linked to certain forms of cancer.
Many fuels contain benzene as a solvent. Unburned benzene has been strongly linked to certain forms of cancer. If you live in an area where you must fill your own gas tank, take precautions. These may include:

  • standing upwind away from the filler nozzle while refueling
  • refueling only at gas stations with vapor recovery systems that fully seal the mouth of the filler neck during refueling
  • wear neoprene gloves while handling a fuel filler nozzle.

    Use of Additives
    With the exception of gas line antifreeze during winter months, do not add solvents, thickeners, or other store-bought additives to your car's fuel, cooling, or lubricating systems. Overuse may damage your engine, and some of these additives contain organically volatile chemicals. Do not needlessly expose yourself to these chemicals.

    pg. 130 Refueling

     Fuel filler door

    Fuel filler door
    Press the button on the light switch panel (see illustration on page 40) when the car is at a standstill to unlock the fuel filler door. Please note that the fuel filler door will remain unlocked until the car is driven again at a speed of over approximately 5 mph (8km/h). An audible click will be heard when the fuel filler door relocks.

    If you intend to leave your car while it is being refueled, this feature enables you to lock the doors/trunk while leaving the fuel filler door unlocked.

    You can also keep the car locked if you remain inside during refueling. The central locking button does not lock the fuel filler door.

    Be sure the fuel filler door is not obstructed and is completely closed after refueling.
    Open the fuel filler cap slowly during hot weather.

    NOTE: During a transitional period, a small number of service stations may still have fuel nozzles that are not compatible with the fuel filler neck on cars equipped with the evaporative control system.

    Refueling
    The fuel tank is designed to hold approximately 18.5 US gals (70 liters) or 21.1 US gals (80 liters) on turbo models, with sufficient volume left over to accommodate possible expansion of the fuel in hot weather. Be aware that the "usable" tank capacity will be somewhat less than the specified maximum. When the fuel level is low, such factors as ambient temperature, the fuel's "Reid vapor pressure" characteristics, and terrain can affect the fuel pump's ability to supply the engine with an adequate supply of fuel. Therefore, it is advisable to refuel as soon as possible when the needle nears the red zone, or when the fuel warning light comes on.


    CAUTION:
    Do not refuel with the engine running *. Turn the ignition off or to position I. If the ignition is on, an incorrect reading could occur in the fuel gauge After refueling, close the fuel filler cap by turning it clockwise until it clicks into place*.

    Allow for fuel expansion by not overfilling the tank. Overfilling could also cause damage to the emission control systems. Avoid spilling gasoline during refueling. In addition to causing damage to the environment, gasolines containing alcohol can cause damage to painted surfaces, which may not be covered under the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.

    Do not use gasolines containing methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol). This practice can result in vehicle performance deterioration and can damage critical parts in the fuel system. Such damage may not be covered under the New Vehicle Limited Warranty.


    * If the fuel filler cap is not closed tightly or if the engine is running when the car is refueled, the Check Engine Light (malfunction indicator lamp) may indicate a fault. However, your vehicle's performance will not be affected. Use only Volvo original or approved fuel filler caps.

    pg. 131 Starting the car

    Starting the engine
    1. Fasten the seat belt.

    warningWARNING!

    Before starting, check that the seat, steering wheel and mirrors are adjusted properly. Make sure the brake pedal can be depressed completely. Adjust the seat if necessary. See pages 102, 104.

    2. Apply the parking brake (hand brake) if not already set. The gear selector (automatic transmission) is locked in the (P) ark position (SHIFTLOCK). Manual transmission: the clutch must be fully depressed.

    3. Without touching the accelerator pedal, turn the ignition key* to the starting position. Allow the starter to operate for up to 10 seconds. Release the key as soon as the engine starts. If the engine fails to start, repeat this step.
    For cold starts at altitudes above 6000 ft (1800 meters), depress the accelerator pedal halfway and turn the key to the starting position. Release the pedal slowly when the engine starts.

    4. To release the gear selector from the (P) ark position, the engine must be running (or the ignition key must be in position II) and the brake pedal must be depressed.

    5. Select the desired gear. The gear engages after a very slight delay which is especially noticeable when selecting R.

    NOTE: Your car is equipped with a KEYLOCK system (automatic transmission). When the engine is switched off, the gear selector must be in the (P) ark position before the key can be removed from the ignition switch.
    When starting in cold weather, the transmission may shift up at slightly higher engine speeds than normal until the automatic transmission fluid reaches normal operating temperature.


    CAUTION:
    Automatic transmission

    The engine should be idling when you move the gear selector. Never accelerate until after you feel the transmission engage! Accelerating immediately after selecting a gear will cause harsh engagement and premature transmission wear.
    Selecting P or N when idling at a standstill for prolonged periods of time will help prevent overheating of the automatic transmission fluid.

    warningWARNING!

    Always place the gear selector in Park and apply the parking brake before leaving the vehicle. Never leave the car unattended with the engine running.
    Always open garage doors fully before starting the engine inside a garage to ensure adequate ventilation. The exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide, which is invisible and odorless but very poisonous

    Do not race a cold engine immediately after starting. Oil flow may not reach some lubrication points fast enough to prevent engine damage.

    * If two of the keys to your car are close together, e. g., on the same key ring, when you try to start the car, this could cause interference in the immobilizer system and result in the car not starting. If this should occur, remove one of the keys from the key ring before trying to start the car again.

    pg. 132 Starting the car

    Ignition switch and steering wheel lock
    0 Locked position: Remove the key to lock the steering wheel *.

    warningWARNING!

    Never turn the key to position O while driving or when the car is being towed.

    I Intermediate position - "radio position": Certain accessories, radio, etc. on, daytime running lights off.

    II Drive position: The key position when driving. The car's entire electrical system is connected.

    III Start position: Release the key when the engine starts. The key returns automatically to the Drive position.

    A chime will sound if the key is left in the ignition and the driver's door is opened.

    * The gear selector must be in the (P) ark position (automatic transmission).

     instrument panel

    Steering wheel lock
    The steering wheel lock might be under tension when the car is parked.
    Turn the steering wheel slightly to free the ignition key.

    In order to help reduce car theft, make sure the steering wheel lock is engaged before leaving the car.

    pg. 133 General information

    Economical driving conserves natural resources
    Better driving economy may be obtained by thinking ahead, avoiding rapid starts and stops and adjusting the speed of your vehicle to immediate traffic conditions. Observe the following rules:

  • Bring the engine to normal operating temperature as soon as possible by driving with a light foot on the accelerator pedal for the first few minutes of operation. A cold engine uses more fuel and is subject to increased wear.
  • Whenever possible, avoid using the car for driving short distances. This does not allow the engine to reach normal operating temperature.
  • Drive carefully and avoid rapid acceleration and hard braking.
  • Do not exceed posted speed limits.
  • Avoid carrying unnecessary items (extra load) in the car.
  • Maintain correct tire pressure. Check tire pressure regularly (when tires are cold).
  • Remove snow tires when threat of snow or ice has ended.
  • Note that roof racks, ski racks, etc, increase air resistance and also fuel consumption.
  • Avoid using automatic transmission kickdown feature unless necessary.
  • However, at higher driving speeds, fuel consumption will be lower with the air conditioning on and the windows closed than with the air conditioning off and the windows open.
  • Using the onboard trip computer's fuel consumption modes can help you learn how to drive more economically.

    Other factors that decrease gas mileage are:

  • Worn or dirty spark plugs
  • Incorrect spark plug gap
  • Dirty air cleaner
  • Dirty engine oil and clogged oil filter
  • Dragging brakes
  • Incorrect front end alignment Some of the above mentioned items and others are checked at the standard Maintenance Service intervals.

    NOTE: Vehicles equipped with automatic transmissions should use (D) rive as often as possible and avoid using "kickdown" to help improve fuel economy.

    warningWARNING!

    Driving with the trunk open: Driving with the trunk open could lead to poisonous exhaust gases entering the passenger compartment. If the trunk must be kept open for any reason, proceed as follows
    - Close the windows
    - Set the ventilation system control to air flow to floor, windshield and side windows and blower control to its highest setting.


    CAUTION: Drive slowly and carefully if going through standing water (i. e. flooded roadways, etc.). Damage to the engine could result if excess water is drawn in through the air intake system. Never drive the vehicle in water deeper than 1 foot (300 mm).

    Weight distribution affects handling
    At the specified curb weight your car has a tendency to understeer, which means that the steering wheel has to be turned more than might seem appropriate for the curvature of a bend. This ensures good stability and reduces the risk of rear wheel skid. Remember that these properties can alter with the vehicle load.

    pg. 134 General information

    The heavier the load in the trunk (max. 220 lbs, 100 kg), the less the tendency to understeer.

    Handling, roadholding
    Vehicle load, tire design and inflation pressure all affect vehicle handling. Therefore, check that the tires are inflated to the recommended pressure according to the vehicle load. See "Tire pressure" section.

    Loads should be distributed so that capacity weight or maximum permissible axle loads are not exceeded.

    pg. 135 Manual transmission

     Manual transmission

    Shift positions
    Depress the clutch pedal completely when changing gears*.

    Remove your foot from the clutch pedal while driving. The shift pattern should be followed.

    Overdrive (5th gear) should be used as often as possible to help improve fuel economy.

    * Clutch interlock
    The clutch must be fully depressed before you can start your car. If the clutch is not depressed, it will not be possible to start the engine.

     Manual transmission

    Engaging reverse gear
    Reverse gear should only be engaged from a complete stop.


    CAUTION:
    Be careful to avoid inadvertently engaging reverse while moving forward.

     Manual transmission

    "Sport shifter" gear selector (option on T5 models)
    The shift positions for the "sport shifter" are the same as for the standard manual gear selector.

    pg. 136 Automatic transmission (option)

     Automatic transmission

    Automatic transmission AW55- 50 (option)
    P Park

    Use this position when starting the engine or parking the car.
    Never use P while the car is in motion.
    The parking brake should be set whenever the car is parked.
    The gear selector is mechanically locked in the P position (SHIFTLOCK). To release the gear selector from this position, the engine must be running (or the ignition key must be in position II) and the brake pedal must be depressed.

    warningWARNING!

    Never leave the car unattended when the engine is running. If, by mistake, the gear selector is moved from P, the car may start moving.

    R (Reverse)
    Never engage R while the car is moving forward.

    N (Neutral)
    Neutral - no gear engaged. Use the parking brake.

    D (Drive)
    D is the normal driving position and should be used as often as possible to help improve fuel economy. The car should not be moving when shifting from R to the D position.

    4 (Intermediate gear)
    The transmission will shift automatically between gears 4, 3, 2 or 1 from this position. The transmission cannot shift up to (D) rive from fourth gear.

    3 (Intermediate gear)
    The transmission will shift automatically between gears 3, 2 and 1 from this position. The transmission cannot shift up to fourth gear or (D) rive from third gear.

    L (Low gears)
    The transmission is locked in gears 1 and 2 when the selector is in this position.

    NOTE: Gears 4, 3, or L can be used if you are driving in a mountainous area, towing a trailer or to increase engine braking effect.
    The transmission has a built-in limiter designed to help prevent excessive engine speeds (high rpm) when gears 4, 3 or L are selected.

    pg. 137 Automatic transmission (option)

     Automatic transmission

    W - Winter/Wet driving mode - enhanced vehicle traction

  • Mode W will only function if the gear selector is in the (D) rive position.
  • Press the button at the base of the gear selector to engage/disengage this driving mode (see illustration).
  • When the W driving mode is engaged, this is displayed in the instrument panel (see page 30).
  • This mode may be selected for starting/ moving off on slippery roads.

     Automatic transmission

    Automatic transmission AW55- 50 - shift gate positions
    The gear selector can be moved freely between N and D.

    Depressing the button on the front of the gear selector knob enables you to move the gear selector to positions P, R, N, D, 4, 3 and L.

    "Kickdown"
    Automatic shift to a lower gear (kickdown) is achieved by depressing the accelerator pedal fully and briskly. An upshift will occur when approaching the top speed for a particular gear or by releasing the accelerator pedal slightly. Kickdown can be used for maximum acceleration or when passing at highway speeds.

    Automatic transmission - adaptive system
    The automatic transmission is controlled by an adaptive control system that constantly monitors the way in which the transmission functions. It senses and adapts each gear shift for optimal performance. The system also monitors your particular driving style and adapts gear shifting accordingly.

    Cold starts
    When driving before the engine has reached its normal operating temperature, the transmission will shift up at a slightly higher engine speeds to heat the three-way catalytic converter as quickly as possible.

    pg. 138 Geartronic (option)

     Geartronic

    P Park
    Use this position when starting the engine or parking the car.

    Never use P while the car is in motion.

    The parking brake should also be set whenever the car is parked.

    The gear selector is mechanically locked in the P position (SHIFTLOCK). To release the gear selector from this position, the engine must be running (or the ignition key must be in position II) and the brake pedal must be depressed.

    warningWARNING!

    Never leave the car unattended when the engine is running. If, by mistake, the gear selector is moved from P, the car may start moving.

    R (Reverse)
    Never engage R while the car is moving forward.

    N (Neutral)
    Neutral - no gear engaged. Use the parking brake.

    D (Drive)
    D is the normal driving position and should be used as often as possible to help improve fuel economy. The car should not be moving when shifting from R to the D position.

    Automatic transmission - adaptive system
    The automatic transmission is controlled by an adaptive control system that constantly monitors the way in which the transmission functions. It senses and adapts each gear shift for optimal performance. The system also monitors your particular driving style and adapts gear shifting accordingly.

     Geartronic

    Automatic transmission - shift gate positions
    You can move the gear selector freely between the (MAN) ual and (D) rive positions while driving.

    Depress the button on the front of the gear selector knob to move between the R, N, D, and P positions.

    pg. 139 Geartronic (option)

    Manual shifting - Geartronic
    You can move the gear selector freely between the (MAN) ual and (D) rive positions while driving. Gears 3, and 4 have a "lock-up" function which reduces engine speed and helps save fuel.

    The currently selected gear will be displayed in the instrument panel (see page 30).

  • To access the (MAN) ual shifting position from (D) rive, move the gear selector to the left to MAN.
  • To return to the (D) rive position from MAN, move the gear selector to the right.

    While driving
    If you select the (MAN) ual position while driving, the gear that was being used in the (D) rive position will also initially be selected in (MAN) ual position.

  • Move the gear selector forward (toward "+") to shift to a higher gear or rearward (toward "-") to shift to a lower gear.
  • If you hold the gear selector toward "-", the transmission will downshift, one gear at a time, and will utilize the braking power of the engine. If the current speed is too high for using a lower gear, the downshift will not occur until the speed has decreased enough to allow the lower gear to be used.
  • If you slow down to a very low speed, the transmission will automatically shift down.
  • When starting in the (MAN) ual position, 3rd gear is the highest gear that may be selected.

    NOTE: Kickdown does not function when the transmission is in the manual shift (Geartronic) mode.

    Kickdown
    Automatic shift to a lower gear (kickdown) is achieved by depressing the accelerator pedal fully and briskly. An upshift will occur when approaching the top speed for a particular gear or by releasing the accelerator pedal slightly. Kickdown can be used for maximum acceleration or when passing at highway speeds.

    Kickdown does not function when the transmission is in the manual shift (Geartronic) mode.

     Geartronic

    W - Winter/Wet driving mode - enhanced vehicle traction

  • Mode W will only function if the gear selector is in the (D) rive position.
  • Press the button at the base of the gear selector to engage/disengage this driving mode (see illustration).
  • When the W driving mode is engaged, this is displayed in the instrument panel (see page 30).
  • This mode may be selected for starting/ moving off on slippery roads.

    pg. 140 All Wheel Drive (option)

    All Wheel Drive (AWD) - general information
    Your Volvo can be equipped with permanent All Wheel Drive, which means that power is distributed automatically between the front and rear wheels. Under normal driving conditions, most engine's power is directed to the front wheels. However, if there is any tendency for the front wheels to spin, an electronically controlled coupling distributes power to the wheels that have the best traction.

    Tire dimensions
    Volvo recommends that you always drive on tires of the same brand, size, construction (radial), tread pattern, load-, speed-, traction-, temperature-, and treadwear rating. never drive on mixed tires, except for brief periods when the temporary spare tire is in use.

    Always use properly inflated tires of correct dimensions. Tire size and inflation pressures are shown on the tire pressure label located inside the fuel filler door.

    Tire Rotation
    Volvo recommends rotating the tires every 7,500 miles (12,000 km). Tires should be rotated front-to-back/back-to-front only. Tires must maintain the same direction of rotation throughout their lifetime, and should never be rotated from one side of the vehicle to the other.

    Temporary Spare
    The temporary spare tire is for temporary, low-speed, short-distance use only. Replace it with a full-size tire as soon as possible, in accordance with "Tire Rotation" above. Do not drive on the temporary spare at speeds above 50 mph (80 km/h) or for distances greater that

    pg. 141 Brake system

    BRAKE Brake circuit malfunction
    If one of the brake circuits were to malfunction, the red warning light would come on, the pedal travel would increase slightly, the pedal would feel softer, and extra pressure would be required for normal braking. If the light comes on while driving or braking, stop immediately and check the brake fluid level in the reservoir.

    warningWARNING!

    If the fluid level is below the MIN mark in the reservoir or if a "Brake failure - Service urgent" message is displayed in the text window: DO NOT DRIVE. Have the car towed to a Volvo retailer and have the brake system inspected.

    NOTE: When the car is at a standstill and the engine is idling, e. g. at a traffic light and the brake pedal is depressed, the pedal may go down slightly. This is a normal function of the power-assisted brake system.

    If the brake power-assist does not function
    The power assist to the brakes functions only when the engine is running. When the car is moving without the engine running, the brake pedal pressure required to stop the car is increased by 3-4 times and the brake pedal feels stiff.

    Water on brake discs and brake pads affects braking
    Driving in rain and slush or passing through an automatic car wash can cause water to collect on the brake discs and pads. This will cause a delay in braking effect when the pedal is depressed. To avoid such a delay when the brakes are needed, depress the pedal occasionally when driving through rain, slush etc. This will remove the water from the brakes. Check that brake application feels normal. This should also be done after washing or starting in very damp or cold weather.

    Severe strain on the brake system
    The brakes will be subject to severe strain when driving in mountains or hilly areas or towing. Vehicle speed is usually slower, which means that the cooling of the brakes is less efficient than when driving on level roads. To reduce the strain on the brakes, it is advisable not to use the brakes excessively. Instead, shift into a lower gear and let the engine help with the braking. Do not forget that, if you are towing a trailer, the brakes will be subjected to a greater than normal load.

    pg. 142 Brake system

     ABS

    Anti-lock brakes (ABS)
    If the warning lamp lights up there is a malfunction of the ABS system (the standard braking system will however function) and the vehicle should be driven cautiously to a Volvo retailer for inspection. The Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) helps to improve vehicle control (stopping and steering) during severe braking conditions by limiting brake lockup. When the system "senses" impending lockup, braking pressure is automatically modulated in order to help prevent lockup, which could lead to a skid.

    The system performs a self-diagnostic test when the engine is started and when the vehicle first reaches a speed of approximately 12 mph (20 km/h). The brake pedal will pulsate several times and a sound may be audible from the ABS control module. This is normal.

    To obtain optimal effect from the ABS system, constant pressure should be kept on the brake pedal, keep constant pressure on the brake pedal. Do not pump the brake pedal.

    The switching of the ABS modulator will be audible and the brake pedal will pulsate during braking. Please be aware that ABS does not increase the absolute braking potential of the vehicle. While control will be enhanced, ABS will not shorten stopping distances on slippery surfaces.

    ABS with EBD (Electronic Brake Force Distribution)
    EBD is an integrated part of the ABS system. EBD regulates the hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes to help provide optimal braking capacity.

    If the BRAKE and ABS warning lights come on at the same time, this could indicate a fault in the brake system.

  • Stop the car in a suitable place and switch off the engine.
  • Restart the engine.
  • If both warning lights go off, no further action is required.
  • If both lights are still on after the engine has been restarted, switch off the engine again and check the brake fluid level (see page 172 for the location of the brake fluid reservoir).
  • If the brake fluid level is above the MIN mark, drive carefully to an authorized Volvo retailer and have the brake system inspected.

    warningWARNING!

    If the fluid level is below the MIN mark in the reservoir or if a "Brake failure - Service urgent" message is displayed in the text window: DO NOT DRIVE. Have the car towed to a Volvo retailer and have the brake system inspected.



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