pg. 124 Fuel/emissions systems

Fuel system

The fuel system continually compensates for variation in engine load, speed and temperature. A mass air flow sensor continuously measures the inducted air and makes rapid adjustments for changes in air temperature and density, to balance fuel economy, emissions, and engine power requirements.

Heated oxygen sensor

This is an emission control system designed to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy. The heated oxygen sensor monitors the composition of the exhaust gases leaving the engine. The exhaust gas analysis is fed into an electronic module. This adjusts the air/fuel ratio to improve combustion and reduce the three major pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx)) via a three-way catalytic converter.

Crankcase ventilation

The engine is provided with positive crankcase ventilation which prevents crankcase gases from being released into the atmosphere. Instead, the crankcase gases are routed to the intake manifold and cylinders.

Prem-Air

On the surface of the radiator in the engine compartment, there is a special coating called Prem-Air. Prem-Air works as a catalytic converter, converting most of the ozone passing through the radiator into oxygen, thereby reducing harmful ground-level ozone.

Evaporative control system

The car is equipped with an evaporative control system, which prevents gasoline vapor from being released into the atmosphere. The system consists of a fuel tank with filler pipe and cap, two rollover valves, a Fill Limit Vent Valve (FLVV), vapor vent lines, a charcoal canister, a purge line, and a purge control valve and engine connections. In addition, there is a pressure sensor connected to the fuel tank and a filter-protected Canister Close Valve (CCV) on the atmospheric side of the canister, for system diagnosis. The gasoline vapor is channeled through the rollover valves and the FLVV via the vapor vent lines into the charcoal canister, where it is stored. When the engine is started, the gasoline vapor is drawn from the charcoal canister to the engine's air intake system and into the combustion process.

NOTE:

  • Overfilling the fuel tank can cause damage to the evaporative control system.
  • If the fuel filler cap is not closed tightly or if the engine is running when the car is refueled, the Malfunction Indicator Lamp may indicate a fault.
  • During a transitional period, a small number of service stations may still have fuel nozzles that are not compatible with the fuel filler neck on cars equipped with the evaporative control system mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Air Resources Board. If you experience difficulties in refueling

    CAUTION:
    Fuel must not be siphoned from the fuel tank. This will damage the evaporative control system.

    pg. 125 Drive belt, Coolant

    Belt check

    Check the belt regularly to make sure it is in good condition and is clean. A worn or dirty belt can cause poor cooling and low alternator output as well as impair the operation of the power steering and the air conditioning unit.

    NOTE: The drive belt is equipped with a self-tensioning mechanism and requires no adjustment between changes.

    WARNING!
    The engine must not be running when this check is performed.

    Check coolant level

    The cooling system must be filled with coolant and not leak to operate at maximum efficiency. Check the coolant level regularly. The level should be between the "MAX" and "MIN" marks on the expansion tank. The check should be made with particular thoroughness when the engine is new or when the cooling system has been drained. Do not remove the filler cap other than for topping up with coolant. Frequent removal may prevent coolant circulation between the engine and the expansion tank during engine warm up and cooling.

    Changing coolant

    Normally, the coolant does not need to be changed. If the system must be drained, consult your Volvo retailer.

    NOTE: Do not top off with water only. This reduces the rust-protective and antifreeze qualities of the coolant and has a lower boiling point. It can also cause damage to the cooling system if it should freeze. Top off with Volvo Genuine Coolant/Antifreeze only.


    CAUTION:
    The cooling system must always be kept filled to the correct level. If it is not kept filled, there can be high local temperatures in the engine which could result in damage. Different types of antifreeze/coolant may not be mixed.


    WARNING!
    Never remove the radiator cap while the engine is warm. Wait until the car cools.



    pg. 126 Servicing

    Air cleaner

    Replace the air cleaner cartridge with a new one every 30,000 miles (48,000 km). The cartridge should be replaced more often when driving under dirty and dusty conditions. The filter cannot be cleaned and therefore should always be replaced with a new one.

    Timing belt

    For proper functioning of the vehicle and its emission control systems, the timing belt must be replaced every 105,000 miles (168,000 km). Engine damage will occur if the belt fails.

    Fuel filler cap, tank, lines and connections

    The effectiveness of the fuel system to contain hydrocarbons is dependent largely on a leak-free system. Check for proper sealing of the fuel filler cap which contains "O" ring type seals. A fuel filler cap that does not seal properly may cause your Check Engine (malfunction indicator lamp) to light."

    Fuel (line) filter

    For proper functioning of the vehicle and its emission control systems, the fuel line filter should be replaced at 105,000 miles (168,000 km). The filter is replaced as one complete unit. Replace more frequently if contaminated fuel is introduced into the tank (or if there is reason to suspect that this has occurred).

    PCV system

    The orifice nipple in the intake manifold and the filter at the end of the PCV hose in the air cleaner should be inspected at 60,000 miles (96,000 km) and thereafter, at 30,000 mile (48,000 km) intervals.

    Cabin air filter

    Replace the cabin air filter with a new one at 15,000 mile (24,000 km) intervals. Volvo recommends replacing the filter more often if the car is driven under dirty and dusty conditions. The filter cannot be cleaned and therefore should always be replaced with a new one.

    pg. 127 Servicing


    Washer fluid reservoir

    The washer fluid reservoir is located in the engine compartment and holds approx. 4.7 US qts. (4.5 liters).

    During cold weather, the reservoir should be filled with windshield washer solvent containing antifreeze.

    Hoisting the car

    If a garage jack is used to lift the car, the two jack attachments points should be used. They are specially reinforced to bear the weight of the car. A garage jack can also be placed under the front of the engine support frame. Take care not to damage the splash guard under the engine. Ensure that the jack is positioned so that the car cannot slide off it. Always use axle stands or similar structures.
    If a two-post hoist is used to lift the car, the front and rear lift arm pads should be centered under the reinforced lift plates on the inboard edge of the sill rail (see illustration above).

    pg. 128 Opening the hood, Engine compartment


    Opening the hood

  • Pull the lever located under the left side of the dash to release the hood lock.
  • Lift the hood slightly.
  • Press up the release control located under the front edge of the hood (at the center) and lift.

    WARNING!
    Check that the hood locks properly when closed.


    Engine compartment

    1 Expansion tank - coolant
    2 Power steering fluid reservoir
    3 Washer fluid reservoir
    4 Dipstick - engine oil
    5 Radiator/cooling fan
    6 Oil filler cap - engine
    7 Brake fluid reservoir
    8 Relay/fuse box
    9 Air cleaner
    10 Battery ( in the cargo compartment)

    WARNING!
    The cooling fan may start or continue to operate (for up to 6 minutes) after the engine has been switched off.



    pg. 129 Engine oil

    Engine Oil quality

    Meeting minimum ILSAC specification GF-2, including ACEA A1, API SJ, SJ/CF and SJ/Energy Conserving. Your Volvo V70 has been certified to standards using ILSAC oil specification GF-2 5W/30. Volvo recommends use of oil with a quality rating equal to or higher than ILSAC GF-2. Equivalent and better oils include ACEA A1, API SJ, SJ/CF, and SJ/Energy conserving. Lower quality oils may not offer the same fuel economy, engine performance, or engine protection. Depending on your driving habits, premium or synthetic oils may provide superior fuel economy and engine protection. Consult your Volvo retailer for recommendations on premium or synthetic oils. Oil additives must not be used unless advised by an authorized Volvo retailer.

    Oil viscosity (stable ambient temperatures) Operation in temperate climates

    Incorrect viscosity oil can shorten engine life. Under normal use when temperatures do not exceed 86 °F, SAE 5W/30 will provide good fuel economy and engine protection. See the viscosity chart at right.

    Operation in hot climates

    When temperatures exceed 86 °F in your area, Volvo recommends, for the protection of your engine, that you use a heavier weight oil, such as SAE 10W/30. See the viscosity chart at right.

    Extreme engine operation

    Synthetic oils meeting SAE 10W/30 and complying with oil quality requirements are recommended for driving in areas of sustained temperature extremes (hot or cold), when towing a trailer over long distances, and for prolonged driving in mountainous areas.

    Changing oil and oil filter

    Oil and oil filter changes should be made at 7,500 mile (12,000 km) intervals.

    Extra oil additives must not be used unless advised by an authorized Volvo retailer. Synthetic oil is not used when the oil is changed at the normal maintenance service intervals.

    The API Service Symbol


    The API Service Symbol "donut" is divided into three parts:

  • The top half describes the oil's performance level.
  • The center identifies the oil's viscosity.
  • The bottom half tells whether the oil has demonstrated energy-conserving proper ties in a standard test in comparison to a reference oil.


    pg. 130 Engine oil

    Checking the oil level

    The oil level should be checked every time the car is refueled. This is especially important during the period up to the first service.

    CAUTION:
    Not checking the oil level regularly can result in serious engine damage if the oil level becomes too low.


    Park the car on a level surface and wait for at least 5 minutes after the engine has been switched off. Be sure the oil level is maintained between the upper and lower marks on the dipstick. Low oil level can damage the engine. Overfilling can result in high oil consumption and damage the emissions system. The distance between the dipstick marks represents approx. 1.6 US qt (1.5 liter). The oil should preferably be checked when cold, before the engine has been started.

    NOTE: The engine must be stopped when checking the oil. Do not fill to the max when the engine is hot

    WARNING!
    Do not allow oil to spill onto or come into contact with hot exhaust pipe surfaces.

    Adding oil

  • Add oil of the same kind as already used.
  • Capacity (including oil filter): 6.1 US qts. (5.8 liters)
  • Capacity (including oil filter and oil cooler): 7.1 US qts. (6.7 liters)
  • The oil filter should be replaced at every oil change.

    pg. 131 Power steering/Brake fluid reservoirs


    Power steering fluid

    The fluid level should always be between the MIN and MAX marks.

    Fluid type: ATF
    Replace: No fluid change required

    Brake fluid

    The brake fluid should always be above the MIN mark on the side of the reservoir. Check, without removing the cap, that there is sufficient fluid in the reservoir.

    Fluid type: DOT 4+
    Replace: Every second year or 30,000 miles (48,000 km). The fluid should be replaced once a year or every 15,000 miles (24,000 km) when driving under extremely hard conditions (mountain driving, etc.)

    Always entrust brake fluid changing to an authorized Volvo retailer.

    pg. 132 Battery maintenance


    Battery maintenance

    The battery in your car is located under the floor of the cargo area.

    Driving habits and conditions, climate, the number of starts, etc. all affect the service life and function of the battery. In order for your battery to perform satisfactorily, keep the following in mind:

  • Check the fluid level in each cell in the battery every 6 months or every 7,500 * miles (12,000 km). The fluid should be at the level shown in the illustration above (A**). Use a screwdriver to open the caps and a flashlight to inspect the level.
  • If necessary, add distilled water. The level should never be above the indicator (A).
  • The fluid level should be checked if the battery has been recharged.
  • After inspection, be sure the cap over each battery cell is securely in place.
  • Check that the battery cables are correctly connected and properly tightened.
  • Never disconnect the battery when the engine is running, for example when changing the battery.
  • The battery should be disconnected from the vehicle when a battery charger is used directly on the battery. However, if the battery is being charged via the connecting points in the engine compartment (see page 95), the battery must be connected.

    PROPOSITION 65 WARNING!
    Battery posts, terminals, and related accessories contain lead and lead compounds, chemicals known to the state of California to cause cancer and reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.

    * More frequently in warm climates.

    ** The level indicator inside the battery could be designed in various ways. See illustration above!



    pg. 133 Battery maintenance


    Replacing the battery

  • Switch off the ignition.
  • Unscrew the cover over the battery. Wait at least 10 minutes after switching off the ignition before disconnecting the battery so that all information in the car's electrical system can be stored in the control modules.
  • Disconnect the negative (ground) cable first.
  • Disconnect the positive cable and pull the ventilation hose* from the battery.
  • Lift out the old battery and put a new battery into place.
  • Connect the positive cable first.
  • Connect the negative (ground) cable.
  • Be sure that the ventilation hose* is securely connected to the battery and that the other end of the hose is properly routed through the ventilation opening in the floor of the battery compartment.
  • Reinstall the cover and screw it securely in place.

    WARNING!

  • Never expose the battery to open flame or electric spark.
  • Do not smoke near the battery.
  • Battery fluid contains sulfuric acid. Do not allow battery fluid to contact eyes, skin, fabrics or painted surfaces. If contact occurs, flush the affected area immediately with water. Obtain medical help immediately if eyes are affected.

  • WARNING!
    * Ventilation hose: The battery generates hydrogen gas, which is flammable and explosive. The battery is fitted with a ventilation hose which vents hydrogen gas out of the battery compartment through a ventilation opening in the bottom of this compartment. If the battery must be replaced, it is essential that the ventilation hose is properly connected to the battery and that it is routed through the ventilation opening provided (see illustration). Be sure the ventilation hose is free of debris. Only use replacement batteries equipped with a ventilation hose. Consult your Volvo retailer.



    pg. 134 Replacing wiper blades


    Windshield wiper blades

    Lift the wiper arm off the windshield and hold the blade at a 45° angle to the arm. Press the end of the plastic clip located on the arm.

    Slide the wiper blade along the arm to release it from the hook. The entire hooked part of the wiper arm must pass through the opening in the wiper blade.

    Pull the old blade free of the wiper arm. Install the new blade (installation is the reverse of removal) and make sure that it is properly attached to the wiper arm.

    NOTE: For reasons of safety, you should change the windshield wiper blades as soon as they start to leave marks on the windshield or fail to wipe efficiently and cleanly.

    To obtain maximum lifetime from a set of wiper blades, clean them with a stiff-bristle brush and warm, soapy water as part of a normal car wash.

    Replacement of tailgate wiper blade

    Pull the wiper arm out away from the glass. Pull off the wiper blade outwards toward the tailgate. Press the new wiper blade into place. Check that it is properly secured.

    Headlight wiper blades (certain models)

    Pull the wiper blade in the direction indicated by the arrow in the illustration to remove it. Press the new wiper blade into place. The long section of the blade should point toward the grille. Check that the new blade is properly attached to the wiper arm.



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