pg. 8:7 Servicing

Valves

The valve clearance should be check and, if necessary, adjusted every 30,000 miles (48,000 km).

Air cleaner

Replace the air cleaner cartridge with a new one every 30,000 miles (48,000 km). The cartridge should be replaced more often when driving under dirty and dusty conditions, The filter cannot be cleaned and, therefore, should always be replaced with a new one.

Vacuum fittings, hoses and connections

Unstable idle, misfiring, or poor emission control is often caused by leaking vacuum hoses or connections. Check hoses and connections on distributor vacuum unit, connections on heater control servo systems and hydraulic brake servo.

Checking and adjusting idle air control system

Your Volvo is equipped with an electronically-controlled idle air control system that requires no checking or adjustment.

Fuel system cap, tank and lines, and connections

The effectiveness of the fuel system to contain hydrocarbons is dependent largely on a leakfree system. Check for proper sealing of gasoline filler cap which contains "0" ring-type seals. Check all evaporative hoses in vehicle for tightness. Check fuel lines under vehicle and repair if necessary.

Fuel (line) filter

The fuel line filter is located next to the fuel pump. This filter should be replaced every 100,000 miles (160,000 km). The filter is replaced as one complete unit.
Replace more frequently if contaminated fuel is introduced into the tank (or if there is reason to suspect that this has occurred).

Timing belt

B 230 F/FT, B 234 F
We recommend that the timing gear belt be replaced every 50,000 miles (80,000 km).

pg. 8:8 Servicing (cont.)


1 Battery
2 Injection control module
3 Ignition control module
4 Fuel filter
5 Fuel pump
6 Fuel feed pump
7 Air mass meter*
8 Throttle switch
9 Temperature sensor
10 Injector
11 Oxygen sensor
12 Intercooler (Turbo models)

* Pressure meter on certain models

Fuel system

The fuel injection system is all-electronic and microprocessor-controlled. It can continually compensate for variations in engine load, speed and temperature to give the best economy and power. A mass air flow sensor or a pressure meter on certain models, measures the inducted air. In this way the system can make instantaneous adjustments for changes in air temperature or density, thus always assuring the best economy with the lowest possible exhaust emissions.

Lambda-sond (oxygen sensor)
system

This is an emission control system designed to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy. The heated oxygen sensor monitors the composition of the exhaust gases leaving the engine. The exhaust gas analysis is fed into an electronic control module. This adjusts the air-fuel ratio to provide optimum conditions for combustion and efficient reduction of the three major pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrous gases) by a 3-way catalytic converter.

pg. 8:9 Servicing (cont.)

Catalytic Converter

This is a supplementary device in the exhaust system, designed to clean exhaust gases. This device is mainly a container with a ceramic material insert, designed to let the exhaust gases pass through channels in the insert. The channel walls are covered by a thin layer of platinum-palladium. These metals act as catalysts, permitting a chemical action to occur without actually taking part in it.
The emission (CO, HC, NOx) content will increase if the three-way catalytic converter is damaged. Lambda-sond equipped vehicles use Catalytic Converters containing platinum and rhodium.


CAUTION:
Vehicles with a Catalytic Converter must use unleaded fuel only. Otherwise the Catalytic Converter will become ineffective. See "Fuel requirements".


Intercooler

The B230F-Turbo engine employs a turbocompressor to force air into the engine inlet manifold and a charge air cooler to cool the compressed inlet air. The resulting increase in air flow raises pressure in the intake manifold by approx. 8 psi (over atmospheric pressure) and engine power output by approx. 46 horsepower over that developed by the normally-aspirated engine.
The intercooler (which resembles a radiator) is located between the turbocompressor and inlet manifold.

pg. 8:10 Servicing (cont.)

Evaporative control system

The 940 is equipped with a gas-evaporative control system, which prevents gasoline fumes from being released into the atmosphere. The system is comprised of an expansion chamber in the fuel tank, and a charcoal canister with built-in vacuum valve under the left-front wheel housing. The components are interconnected by hoses which channel fuel vapor from the gas tank to the charcoal filter, where it is stored until the engine is started and then drawn into the engine's fuel-induction system.

Crankcase ventilation

The engine is equipped with positive crankcase ventilation which prevents crankcase gases from being released into the atmosphere. Instead, the crankcase gases are admitted to the intake manifold and cylinders.

PCV system

The PCV nipple in the intake manifold should be removed and inspected every 60,000 miles (96,000 km).
Check/replace hoses at the same time.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

This system operates by returning some of the exhaust gases to the engine to be recombusted: since this lowers the combustion temperature the amount of nitrogen oxides released into the atmosphere is reduced.

The EGR valve should be inspected at 60,000 miles (96,000 km) and thereafter cleaned every 20,000 miles (32,000 km).

pg. 8:11 Servicing

WARNING!
The distributor ignition system operates at very high voltages. Special safety precautions must be followed to prevent injury.
Always turn the ignition off when:

  • connecting engine test and diagnostic equipment to the vehicle (timing light, tach-dwell tester, ignition oscilloscope, etc..).
  • Replacing distributor ignition components e.g. plugs, coil, distributor, HT leads etc.
  • Do not touch any part of the distributor ignition system while the engine is running. This may result in unintended movements and body injury.


  • Replacing spark plugs

    The spark plugs should be changed every 30,000 miles (48,000 km). However, city driving or fast highway driving may necessitate changing after 15,000 miles (24,000 km) of driving. When installing new plugs, be sure to fit the right type and use correct torque, see Specifications. When changing the plugs, check that the suppressor connectors are in good condition. Cracked or damaged connectors should be replaced. When changing the spark plugs, clean the terminals and the rubber seals.
    When changing spark plugs, clean the cables terminals, also the rubber seals.


    CAUTION: Do not use silicone-based lubricants, which can have adverse effects on electrical components.


    Battery:

  • Make sure the battery leads are properly connected and tightened.
  • Never disconnect the battery when the engine is running.
  • The battery leads must be disconnected when recharging the battery.
  • Turn radio off before disconnecting the battery. If the radio has an anti-theft code and the battery has been disconnected, the code must be re-entered before the radio will function properly.

    Batteries contain corrosive and toxic acids. It is of the utmost importance that old batteries are disposed of correctly. Your Volvo dealer can assist you in this matter.

    pg. 8:12 Brake fluid, Power steering fluid

    Brake fluid

    The fluid level should be above the min mark.

    Fluid type: DOT 4+
    Replace*: every second year or 30,000 miles (48,000 km). The brake fluid should be replaced once a year or every 15,000 miles (25,000 km) when driving under extremely hard conditions (mountain driving etc.)

    Check, without removing the cap, that the level is above the "MIN" mark of the fluid reservoir.
    Always entrust brake fluid changing to an authorized Volvo dealer.

    Power steering fluid

    The fluid level should lie between the MIN and MAX marks on the dipstick (cool engine).
    Check fluid level with engine idling and after driving while the fluid still is hot. Wipe the reservoir clean.

    Fluid type: ATF type F
    Replace: No fluid change required.

    pg. 8:13 Automatic transmission

    Automatic transmission oil

    Capacity: See "Specifications" section
    Fluid type: Automatic Transmission Fluid type Dexron IID or IIE.
    Replace: Every 20,000 miles (32,000 km).


    Warning!
    Oil spilled on a hot exhaust pipe constitutes a fire risk.


    A Cold transmission: oil temperature + 105°F (+40°C).
    This is a normal temperature for the transmission after idling for about 10 minutes.
    At oil temperature below + 105°F (+40°C), the level may be below the MIN mark.

    B Warm transmission: oil temperature + 190°F (+90°C).
    This temperature is reached after driving for about 30 minutes.
    At oil temperature above +190°f (+90°c), the level may be above the MAX mark.


    NOTE:
    The engine should be idling when checking transmission fluid level.


    Check the oil level as follows:

    Park the car on level surface with the engine idling.
    Slowly move the selector lever through all gear positions and then to position P. Wait 2 minutes before checking the oil level. As the illustration shows, the dipstick has a "Cold" and a "Warm" side. The oil level should be between the MIN and MAX marks. Wipe the dipstick with a clean cloth.


    Warning! The oil may be very hot


    Do not use rags that could leave lint on the dipstick.
    The transmission is topped up via the dipstick tube.
    The space between the MIN and MAX marks on the dipstick corresponds to 0.5 US qt (0.5 liter). Do not fill the transmission with too much oil, since this can result in oil being ejected from the transmission.
    Too little oil, on the other hand, can negatively affect transmission operation, particularly in very cold weather.




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