1 9 8 1
VOLVO
DL, GL and GLT



pg. 45 Maintenance service

MAINTENANCE

Maintenance services
Your Volvo has passed two major inspections before it was delivered to you, according to Volvo specifications. When driven 600-1,200 miles (1,000-2,000 km), your car should be brought to the Volvo dealer for a service inspection. Engine, transmission and rear axle oils, will be changed at this time.
Following this inspection, maintenance inspections as outlined in this book should be performed every 7,500 miles (12,500 km).
The extended maintenance inspection intervals make it even more advisable to follow this program.
Inspection and service should also be performed any time a malfunction is observed or suspected.
Retain receipts for all vehicle emission services to protect your emission warranty.
See your "Warranties and Maintenance Records Manual".

Maintenance inspection 7,500 mile (12,500 km) intervals
Volvo advises you to follow the inspection program at 7,500 mile (12,500 km) intervals which is outlined in the "Warranties and Maintenance Records Manual". This maintenance program contains inspections and services necessary for the proper functioning of your car over the next 7,500 miles (12,500 km).
The maintenance inspections contain several checks which require special instruments and tools and therefore must be performed by a qualified technician.
To keep your Volvo in top condition, specify time tested and proven Genuine Volvo Parts and Accessories.

THE FEDERAL CLEAN AIR ACT (USA)
The Clean Air Act requires vehicle manufacturers to furnish written instructions to the ultimate purchaser to assure the proper functioning of those components that control emissions.
The maintenance instructions listed in the "Servicing" section of this Manual represent the minimum maintenance required. These services are not covered by the warranty. You will be required to pay for labor and material used. Refer to your "Warranties and Maintenance Records Manual" for further details.
In accordance with Federal Regulations, your Volvo is warranted to meet certain Emission Performance Standards. Refer to your Warranties and Maintenance Records Manual for detailed information concerning:

  • Emissions Performance Warranty
  • Limited 12-month New Car Warranty
  • Limited 12-month Replacement Parts and Accessories Warranty
  • Extended Limited Warranty on Dealer Demonstrators
  • Limited 5-Year/50,000-Mile Emission System

    Note: The above pertains to USA vehicles only.

    pg. 46 Servicing

    1981
    MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
    DL GL GLT
      A = Adjust (Correct if necessary)
      R = Replace
      I = Inspect (Correct or Replace if necessary)
      L = Lubricate
    Maintenance Operation Miles 600-
    1,200
    7,500 15,000 22,500 30,000 37,500 45,000
      (Km) (1,000-
    2,000)
    (12,500) (25,000) (37,500) (50,000) (62,500) (75,000)
    EMISSIONS SYSTEM MAINTENANCE  
    Engine Oil and Oil Filter, Except Turbo Engines 1 R R R R R R R
    Engine Oil and Oil Filter, Turbo Engines 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
    Cooling System Hoses and Connections I            
    Engine Drive Belts A       I    
    Torque Manifold Nuts A            
    Valve Clearance         I    
    Camshaft Drive Belt4 A           R4
    Vacuum Fittings, Hoses and Connections I            
    Oxygen Sensor         R    
    Reset Service Indication for Oxygen Sensor         A    
    Air Cleaner Filter         R    
    Idle RPM I   I5   I5   I5
    Fuel System Cap, Tank, Lines and Connections I            
    Spark Plugs         R    
    Ignition Timing I            
    Catalytic Converter Mounting Bolts A            
    Manual Transmission Oil R I I I I I I
    Automatic Transmission Oil3 I I I I I 3 I I
    Rear Axle Oil R I I I I I I

    1) Oil and oil filter cartridge are first changed at the 600-1,200 mile (1,000-2,000 km) inspection. Subsequent oil and filter changes should be made at 7,500 mile (12,500 km) intervals or at least every sixth month, whichever occurs first.
    However, adverse conditions (like hot ambient temperatures, trailer hauling, hill climbing, driving long distances at high speeds, extended periods of idling or low speed operation, short trip operation at freezing temperatures) require oil changes more frequently (every third month).
    2) Oil and oil filter cartridge are first changed at the 600-1,200 mile (1,000-2,000 km) inspection. Subsequent oil and filter changes should be made at 3,750 mile (6,250 km) intervals or at least every third month, whichever occurs first.
    3) Check the oil level (at least every sixth month). For cars used for hard driving, towing or in hilly terrain etc. perform preventive service. This includes oil changes every 30,000 miles (50,000 km).
    4) Not included in emissions systems maintenance but we recommend that the camshaft drive belt be replaced every 45,000 miles (75,000 km)
    5)Except engines equipped with constant idle speed system.



    pg. 47 Servicing

    1981
    MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
    DL GL GLT
      A = Adjust (Correct if necessary)
      R = Replace
      I = Inspect (Correct or Replace if necessary)
      L = Lubricate
    Maintenance Operation Miles 600-
    1,200
    7,500 15,000 22,500 30,000 37,500 45,000
      (Km) (1,000-
    2,000)
    (12,500) (25,000) (37,500) (50,000) (62,500) (75,000)
    MISCELLANEOUS MAINTENANCE  
     
    Engine Coolant         R    
    Fuel (Line) Filter             R
    Carburetor, damper cylinder oil (carburetor engines) I   I   I   I
    Choke and fast idle (carburetor engines) I   I   I   I
    PCV Nipple (Orifice)              
    Ventilation Hoses              
    BRAKES  
    Inspect Brakes. Replace components as necessary.   I I I I I I
    Change Brake Fluid1             R
    STEERING  
    Tire Wear (Align front end if needed.) I I I I I I I
    Check power steering fluid level. I I I I I I I
    BODY  
    Trunk, Door and Hood Hinges and Latches. L L L L L L L

    1) For cars equipped with air dam, the brake fluid should be changed every 15,000 miles (25,000 km) or once a year.



    pg. 48 Service Engine

    The following items should be checked weekly by the driver. (This only takes a few moments.) Description on page
    Engine oil level 51
    Brake fluid 62
    Radiator coolant level 64
    Tire pressures, all five tires 72 , 93
    Operation of all lights-
    Horns -
    Windshield wipers -
    Level of windshield fluid -
    The following should also be carried out regular intervals. Description on page
    Washing 76
    Polishing 77
    Cleaning 77
    Rust protection 77


    Engine B21F, B23E
    1 Data plate
    2 Oil filler cap engine
    3 Oil dipstick engine
    4 Brake fluid reservoir
    5 Fuel filter
    6 Washer fluid reservoir
    7 Expansion tank, coolant
    8 Distributor
    9 Oil reservoir, power steering
    10 Battery


    pg. 49 Engines


    Engine B21F Turbo
    1 Data plate
    2 Turbo charger
    3 Oil dipstick, engine
    4 Brake fluid reservoir
    5 Fuel filter
    6 Expansion tank, coolant
    7 Oil filler cap, engine
    8 Oil reservoir, power steering
    9 Washer fluid reservoir
    10 Battery


    Engine B21A, Canada
    1 Data plate
    2 Carburetor
    3 Oil dipstick, engine
    4 Brake fluid reservoir
    5 Ignition coil
    6 Washer fluid reservoir
    7 Expansion tank, coolant
    8 Oil filler cap engine
    9 Distributor
    10 Battery


    pg. 50 Gas station checks

    Fuel
    Octane rating 91 RON 87 (R+M)/2 for injection engines except B23E 97-98 RON (certain Canadian models ). 91 (R+M)/2
    Octane rating 93 RON 87 (R+M)/2 for carburetor engines (certain Canadian models ).
    Unleaded fuel must be used
    for vehicles with catalytic converter.
    Vehicles not equipped with catalytic converter can use leaded or unleaded gasoline. (See section on "Fuel tank cap".)

    Engine oil
    Maintain oil level between the dipstick marks. The distance between the marks represents 1 quart (1 liter). Engine oil "For API service SE-CC or SF-CC" SAE 10 W-40. (See section titled "Engine oil".)

    Coolant
    Maintain fluid level between MAX and MIN marks on expansion tank.
    Mixture of 50 % Volvo anti-freeze type A (red) or corresponding and 50 % water should be used.

    Washer fluid
    Washer fluid reservoir.
    Water and solvent (wintertime use windshield washer anti-freeze).

    Brake fluid
    Check that the level is above the MIN mark, without removing the cap.
    Brake fluid DOT 4.

    Battery
    Check level in conjunction with normal service or once a year.
    Electrolyte level 1/4" - 3/8" (5-10 mm) above plates. Use distilled water. Never add acid.

    WARNING!
    Battery gases are explosive if brought in contact with open flame or sparks.



    pg. 51 Engine oil



    A oil dipstick
    B oil filler hole

    Checking oil level
    The oil level should be checked each time the fuel tank is refilled. Be sure the oil level is maintained between the upper and lower marks on the dipstick. Low oil level can cause internal damage to the engine and overfilling can result in high oil consumption. The distance between the dipstick marks represents approx. 1 quart (1 liter) of oil.

    To add oil or change oil
    Add oil of the same kind as already used. See engine oil section.

    Changing oil filter
    Replace the oil filter at every oil change. If the oil filter is changed separately 1/2 US qt = .5 liters of oil should be added.

    pg. 52 Engine Oil

    Oil quality
    According to API Service - SE-CC SF-CC
    Synthetic or semi-synthetic oils may be used if their specifications comply with the above.
    SE-CD oils must not be used.

    Oil change:
    Cars without turbo
    Replace: Between the first 600-1,200 (1,000-2,000 km) and every 7,500 miles (12,500 km) scheduled service intervals thereafter, or at least every 6 months.

    Note: Driving under adverse conditions such as high ambient temperatures, trailer hauling, hill climbing, driving long distances at high speeds, extended periods of idling, low speed operation or short trip operation at freezing temperatures may require oil and filter changes more frequently (every third month).
    Drain the oil after driving while it is still hot.

    Oil change:
    Cars with turbo
    Replace: Between the first 600-1,200 (1,000-2,000 km) and every 3,750 miles (6,250 km) thereafter, or at least every 3 months.


    Capacity
    Cars without turbo.
    excl. oil filter: 3.5 US qts - 3.35 liters
    incl. oil filter: 4.0 US qts - 3.85 liters

    Capacity
    Cars with turbo. Same as above except if oil cooler is drained add 0.7 US qts = 0.6 liter.

    pg. 53 Cooling system


    Changing coolant
    Every two years or 30,000 miles (50,000 km) the cooling system should be drained, flushed and refilled. Remove the expansion tank cap.
    Open the drain cock on right side of the engine block and disconnect the lower radiator hose.
    Fill coolant through the expansion tank.
    The heater controls should be fully open when draining and filling.

    Add coolant until the level is up to the MAX mark or slightly above.

    Start engine and run until hot. Check the cooling system connections for tightness. Also re-check the coolant level.
    Capacity: 9.9 US qts. = 9.4 liters.

    Cooling system, hoses and connections
    Check all cooling system hoses and connections for defects or deterioration of hoses and loose clamps or fittings.

    Drive belts
    The belt tension can be checked by depressing the fan belt at a point midway between the alternator and fan pulleys as illustrated. It should be possible to press down the belt about 1/4" - 3/8" (5-10 mm). This also applies to other drive belts on the engine.

    pg. 54 Servicing

    I Engine Mechanical Components

    Torque manifold nuts
    The manifold nuts should be torqued at the 600-1,200 mile (1,000-2,000 km) inspection. A loose manifold could alter air/fuel ratio and cause an increase in emission and/or poor driveability.

    Valves
    The valve clearance should be checked every 30,000 miles (50,000 km).

    Vacuum fittings, hoses and connections
    Unstable idle, misfiring or poor emission control is often caused by leaking vacuum hoses or connections. Check hoses and connections on distributor vacuum unit, EGR valve (where applicable) and connections on heater control servo systems and hydraulic brake servo.

    Camshaft drive belt
    The camshaft drive belt tensioner should be adjusted at the 600-1,200 mile inspection.
    An incorrectly tensioned drive belt will impair exhaust emission as the valves will open and close incorrectly.

    pg. 55 Servicing

    II Engine Fuel System


    CI system
    The B21F engine is provided with a fuel injection system called the CI system (Continuous Injection). Fuel injectors are open and inject fuel as long as the engine is operating. This system has few moving parts, is reliable and meets the exhaust emission standards at maximum efficiency.
    Air supplied to the engine is continuously measured and determines the amount of fuel injected.
    The air flow is regulated by the throttle valve. The air flow sensor and the fuel distributor are integrally built as a single unit. A lever is actuated by the air flow to produce continuous fuel distribution.

    pg. 56 Servicing

    Special instructions for work on the fuel injection system
    Extreme cleanliness is essential when working on the injection system. Great care must be observed.
    Injection system service should be handled by qualified technicians, using equipment intended for this service.

    Fuel 91 octane RON, 87 (R+M)/2
    B21A carburetor engines for Canada require 93 octane gasoline. 87 (R+M)/2
    B23E engines for Canada require 97-98 octane gasoline. 91 (R+M)/2.
    Unleaded fuel permitted for all other models and required for certain models (with catalytic converter).

    A label on the instrument panel and on the rear fender, near the filler inlet, will remind of this requirement.
    It is unlawful to dispense leaded fuel into a vehicle labeled "unleaded gasoline only".

    Lambda-sondTM (oxygen sensor) system
    This is an emission control system designed to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy. An oxygen sensor monitors the composition of the exhaust gases leaving the engine. The exhaust gas analysis is fed into an electronic unit which continuously influences a frequency valve. This adjusts the air-fuel ratio to provide optimum conditions for combustion and efficient reduction of the three major pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrous gases) through a 3-way catalytic converter.

    Change oxygen sensor unit.
    Reset service indication for oxygen sensor.

    The oxygen sensor must be replaced every 30,000 miles (50,000 km).
    To remind the driver about the change of the oxygen sensor unit there is a special reminder light (See section titled "Warning Lights".) The light will stay on until reset.

    Note: Failure to follow the recommended maintenance may result in vehicle not meeting Federal or state emissions standards.

    Fuel (line) filter
    The fuel filter is located on the firewall in the engine compartment. We recommend that this filter be changed every 45,000 miles (75,000 km). The filter is replaced as one complete unit.
    Replace more frequently if contaminated fuel was introduced into the tank.

    Air cleaner
    Replace the air cleaner cartridge with a new one every 30,000 miles (50,000 km). The cartridge should be replaced more often when driving under dirty and dusty conditions.
    The filter cannot be cleaned and, therefore, should always be replaced with a new one.

    pg. 57 Servicing

    Checking and adjusting idling speed
    The idling speed should be adjusted every 15,000 miles (25,000 km). California vehicles and those equipped with the Volvo Constant Idle Speed System do not require idle speed adjustment.

    Fuel system cap, tank and lines and connections
    The effectiveness of the fuel system to contain hydrocarbons is largely dependent on a leak-free system. Check for proper sealing of gasoline filler cap which contains "O" ring type seals. Check all evaporative hoses in vehicle for tightness. Check fuel lines under vehicle and repair if necessary.

    Carburetor (Certain Canadian models)
    The damper oil level should be up to about 1/4" (6 mm) from the edge of the center spindle. If necessary, top-up with Automatic Transmission Fluid.

    Oil quality: Automatic Transmission Fluid
    Oil capacity: 4,5 cc
    Oil-level check: At 600-1,200 miles (1,000-2,000 km) and every 15,000 miles (25,000 km) thereafter.
    Oil change: No change needed.

    Choke and fast idle
    On carburetor engines, the choke and fast idle function should be checked at 600-1,200 miles (1,000-2,000 km) and every 15,000 miles (25,000 km) thereafter.

    pg. 58 Servicing

    III Engine Ignition Components

    Change spark plugs
    The spark plugs should be changed every 30,000 miles (50,000 km).
    However, city driving or fast highway driving may require changing after 7,500 miles of driving.
    When fitting new plugs, be sure to fit the right type:
    Engine B21F : Volvo Part No. 273594-2 (Bosch WR7DS) or equivalent. Engine B21A: Volvo Part No. 273592-6 (Bosch W7DC) or equivalent. Engine B 21 FT : Volvo Part No. 273594-2 (Bosch WR7DS) or equivalent. Engine B23E: Volvo Part No. 273591-8 (Bosch W6DC) or equivalent. Torque to 7-10 ft. lbs. (10-14 Nm).
    When changing the spark plugs, check that the suppressor connectors are in good condition. Cracked or damaged connectors should be replaced.
    When changing spark plugs, clean the cables and cable terminals, also the rubber seals. If the car is driven on roads where salt is used during the winter, coat the cables with silicone.

    Ignition timing
    The ignition timing should be inspected at the 600-1,200 miles (1,000-2,000 km) inspection.
    All adjusting work should be done with the proper equipment. The distributor is one of the most sensitive engine units. Careless handling can lead to decreased engine output and high fuel consumption or even serious damage to the engine.

    IV Engine Crankcase Ventilation System


    Crankcase ventilation
    The engine is provided with positive crankcase ventilation which prevents crankcase gases from being released into the atmosphere.
    Instead, the crankcase gases are admitted to the intake manifold and cylinders.

    Cleaning PCV valve
    The calibrated positive crankcase ventilation valve should be cleaned every 60,000 miles. Rubber hoses should be checked for damage at the same time. Replace if necessary.

    pg. 59 Servicing


    Catalytic Converter
    This is a supplementary device in the exhaust system, designed to clean the remaining dirty exhaust gases. This device is mainly a container with a ceramic material insert, designed to let the exhaust gases pass through channels in the insert. The channel walls are covered by a thin layer of platinum and rhodium. These metals act as catalysts, permitting a chemical action to occur without actually taking part in it.
    The carbon monoxide content will increase if the Catalytic Converter is damaged.


    CAUTION:
    Vehicles with Catalytic Converter must use unleaded fuel only. Otherwise the Catalytic Converter will become damaged and ineffective.

    Torque catalytic converter mounting bolts(all U.S.A. models and certain Canadian models)
    The Catalytic Converter mounting bolts should be re-torqued at the 600-1,200 mile inspection.

    VI Engine Evaporative Emissions


    Evaporative control systems
    Vehicles intended for the North American market are equipped with a gas evaporative control system, which prevents gas fumes from being released into the atmosphere.
    The system is comprised of an expansion chamber in the fuel tank, a roll-over valve on the cross member in front of the fuel tank, and a charcoal canister with built-in vacuum valve under the left front wheel housing. The components are interconnected by hoses which channel fuel vapor from the gas tank to the charcoal filter where they are stored until the engine is started and then drawn into the engine fuel induction system.

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