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Before the vehicle was delivered from the factory it was subjected to a very thorough inspection. Your dealer, in his turn, carried out a further delivery inspection in accordance with the specifications of the Volvo Factory. In addition to this there is a service inspection after 1,500 miles (2,500 km) when the oil in the engine, transmission and rear axle is changed. Subsequent servicing of the vehicle should follow the routine in the service book which is based on service maintenance every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). The simplest way to provide the vehicle with the servicing it requires is to have all the servicing done by a Volvo workshop. The workshop stamp in your Warranty and Maintenance Record Book will show when the vehicle was serviced.
If you prefer to make the simpler servicing procedures yourself or if you are sometimes obliged to have them done by a workshop outside the Volvo organization, this chapter contains same advice as to when and how they should be done. For the sake of convenience, the servicing procedures have been summarized in a maintenance schedule on the following pages.
THE FEDERAL CLEAN AIR ACT
The Clean Air Act requires vehicle manufacturers to furnish written instructions to the ultimate purchaser to assure the proper functioning of those components that control emissions.
The maintenance instructions listed below represent the minimum maintenance required.
These services are not covered by the warranty. You will be required to pay for labor and material used. Refer to your Warranty and Maintenance Record book for further details.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE (You will be charged for these services)
More frequent service intervals will be required if the vehicle is operated in extremely dusty conditions or low temperatures or for extended periods of idling, short runs or trailer hauling. It is beneficial to you to discuss your particular type of operation with your Volvo Dealer's Service Manager so that he can tailor this maintenance schedule to best suit your particular operation.
To simplify maintenance of your Volvo, the vehicle has been equipped with ball joints, steering rods and propeller shafts of such a construction that they do not require regular lubrication. This has been possible due to the fact that points that normally require lubricating have been packed with very durable grease at the factory and then carefully sealed, eliminating the need for subsequent lubrication.
Engine oil should be changed and oil levels checked after every 6,000 miles (10,000 km) in accordance with the lubricating chart at the end of the book. The measures taken in this inspection are also to be found in the lubricating chart.
Always use only first-class lubricant of a well-known brand. The right lubricants in the right quantity at the right time will increase both the lifetime and the reliability of your car.
To avoid rattle and unnecessary wear, the body should be lubricated once a year. The hinges on the hood, doors and trunk lid as well as door stops should be lubricated every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). During the wintertime, the locks in the door handles and trunk lid should also be given reliable anti-freeze to prevent them from freezing up.
No. Lubricating point
|1. Hood latch||Paraffin wax|
|2 Hood hinges||Oil|
|3 Key hole||Lock oil|
|4 Striker plate||Paraffin wax|
|5. Door lock outer slide surfaces||Paraffin wax|
|6. Trunk lid hinges||Oil|
|7. Trunk lid lock|
|8. Door hinges||Grease|
|9. Door stop||Paraffin wax|
|10. Window regulator |
Lock mechanism (Accessible after door upholstery panels have been removed)
|Oil and grease|
|11. Front seat slide rails and latch devices||Paraffin wax|
Check oil level in engine
The oil level in the engine should be checked each time the fuel tank is filled. The check should be done with the engine switched off but warm and, in order to obtain comparable values, about one minute after the engine has been stopped. Wipe dipstick before measuring. The oil level should be between the two marks on the dipstick. It must never be permitted to go down below the lower mark, but on the other hand, it should not be above the upper mark since oil consumption will then be abnormally high. If necessary, top up by filling through the oil filler hole in the valve cover with new oil of the same type already in the engine.
The distance between the dipstick markings corresponds to about 2.1 US qts./1.8 Imp. qts. (2.0 liters).
Change engine oil and filter
With a new or reconditioned engine, the oil should be changed after the first 1,500 miles (2,500 km). Subsequent oil changing is according to the intervals given below. For engine lubrication, oil grade "For API Service SE" (API Service MS) is to be used. Change the oil in the engine every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). For cars used in city traffic, the oil should however be changed every 3,000 miles (5,000 km). Irrespective of the distance, the oil must be changed at least twice a year. For added protection, the oil filter should be replaced at each oil change.
At very low temperatures below -18° C = -0° F) multigrade oil SAE 5 W-20 is recommended. However, this oil should not be used when the temperature is continuously above 0° C (32° F).
The old oil is drained off by removing the drain plug on the pan. Draining should take place after driving when the oil is still warm.
Transmission with overdrive M410
The oil in the transmission should be checked after every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). The oil level should be up to the filler hole. If necessary top up with recommended oil. The overdrive and the transmission have a common oil level and oil filler hole. Make sure when topping-up that the oil runs over into the overdrive.
After every 24,000 miles (40,000 km) the oil in the transmission should be changed. The oil is drained out by removing the gearbox drain plug and the cap for the overdrive oil strainer.
At each oil change the oil filler of the overdrive should be cleaned. This should be done by a workshop.
In a new or reconditioned transmission the oil should also be changed after the first 1,500 miles (2,500 km). The old oil should be drained off immediately after the vehicle has been run while the oil is still warm.
Automatic transmission BW35
The oil level should be checked every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). The filler pipe with graduated dipstick is to be found under the hood just in front of the firewall.
Note: The dipstick has different graduation
marks for a warm and cold transmission.
When the oil level is being checked, the
car should be standing level. With the engine idling in position P, the level should
be between the upper and lower graduation
marks on the dipstick. When topping-up is necessary, use only Automatic Transmission Fluid, Type F (FLM).
The oil in the automatic transmission should be changed every 24,000 miles (40,000 km). The dipstick should be wiped with a cloth, paper, etc., but not with anything that leaves fluff on the dipstick.
The oil level in the rear axle should be checked after every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). The oil level should be up to the filler hole. If necessary top up with the recommended oil. The oil in the rear axle should be changed after the first 1,500 miles (2,500 km). The old oil is drained off by removing the bottom plug. After this the oil should be changed every 24,000 miles (40,000 km). The oil should then be warm and the magnetic plug must be well cleaned, it is of great importance to the lifetime of the final drive that particles and impurities from running-in are removed.
Limited slip differential
Cars equipped with a limited slip differential are delivered from the factory with a rear axle oil MIL-L-2105B with an additive for rear axles with limited slip differential. A similar type of oil should be used for subsequent topping-up and changing. Oil level checking and oil changing are made at the same intervals and in the same way as for a rear axle without a limited slip differential.
The oil level in the power steering should be checked every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). Before checking wipe the oil container clean. Then remove the cap and check the level with the engine not running. The oil level should be about 1/4" (5 -10 mm) above the level mark in the container. If the level is lower than this, top up with oil, with the engine stopped, to prevent air from being sucked into the container. Start the engine and recheck the oil level which should now fall to the level mark. Stop the engine. The oil level should now be about 1/4" (5-10 mm) above the mark.
The oil and filter in the power steering do not need replacing other than during repairs or reconditioning.
The brake system is provided with a tandem type brake fluid container with a section for each circuit but with the same filler hole. The brake fluid level should be between the "Max" and "Min" marks. Every 3rd year or 48,000 miles (80,000 km), the brake system should be drained and the brake fluid replaced. Seals should also be replaced.
This service could conveniently be performed at the same time as the brake booster cylinder air filter is replaced, see page 56.
At continuous hard driving, alp driving or similar where the brakes are used extensively, the brake fluid should be changed annually. Extremely humid climates warrant the same recommendation.
Manifold and cylinder head bolts
The manifold bolts should be torqued at 1,500 mile inspection and then checked every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). Loose manifold could alter air/fuel ratio and cause an increase in emission and/or poor driveability.
The cylinder head should normally be torqued at 1,500 mile inspection and then not touched. However, loose cylinder bolts will effect sealing properties and to some degree the valve tappet adjustment.
The belt tension can be checked by pressing in the fan belt at a point midway between the alternator and the fan. It should be possible to press down the belt there about 3/8" (10 mm) with normal pressure (20-26 lb= 9-12 kp).
The check can suitably be made in a workshop.
Also check the tension on the drive belt for the power pump. It should be possible to depress the belt about 3/16" (5 mm).
Crankcase ventilation system
The engine is provided with positive crankcase ventilation which prevents the gases in the crankcase from being released into the atmosphere. Instead, they are sucked into the intake manifold and take part in the combustion process whereupon they are blown out through the exhaust pipe together with the other combustion gases. Every 12,000 miles (20,000 km) remove and clean the nipple (1) and the hoses (2 and 4). Rubber hoses and the flame arrester (3) should also be replaced if they are in poor condition.
The engine is equipped with a full-flow type oil filter, which means that all the oil passes through the filter on its way from the oil pump to the various lubricating points. Impurities in the oil are collected in the filter and gradually block it. For this reason, the filter must be changed at 1,500 miles and thereafter every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). If the oil filter is replaced without the engine oil being changed, the engine should be topped up with 1.7 US pints/1.4 Imp. pints (.8 liter).
The fuel filter is located in front of the fuel tank. This filter is to be changed after every 48,000 miles (80,000 km). The filter is replaced as one complete unit.
Filter replacement should be done in a workshop.
Filter in fuel tank
A filter is installed in the suction line in the fuel tank. Its function is to prevent any dirt in the tank from being sucked up to the fuel pump.
The filter should be cleaned every 12,000 miles (20,000 km).
Fuel system cap, tank and lines,
The effectiveness of the fuel system to contain hydrocarbons is largely dependent upon a leak free system. Check for proper sealing of gasoline filler cap which contains "0" ring type seals. Check all evaporative hoses in vehicle for tightness and freedom from leaks. Check fuel lines under vehicle and repair if necessary.
The air cleaner consists of a container with replaceable paper insert. Replace the insert every 24,000 miles (40,000 km). Replace more often when driving regularly on dusty roads. No other servicing is required outside the interval just stated.
Filter replacement should be done in a workshop.
Evaporative control system
Vehicles intended for the U.S.A. market are equipped with a gas evaporative control system, which prevents gas fumes from being released into the atmosphere. The system consists of an expansion container and a venting filter, which is filled with active carbon.
When the engine starts, air is drawn through the venting filter and into the engine via the inlet duct. Gas fumes stored in the active carbon are drawn by the air flow into the engine where they take part in the combustion.
Evaporative control filter
The carbon filter unit should be replaced after 48,000 miles (80,000 km). This work should be done in a workshop.
The valve clearance should be checked after every 12,000 miles (20,000 km).
The check should be done in a workshop.
To get some idea of the condition of the engine, a compression test should be made after every 12,000 miles (20,000 km). This test should preferably be made in a workshop.
Check throttle valve switch
The throttle valve switch should be checked every 12,000 miles (20,000 km) in a workshop.
Inspection of electrical connections and
The electrical connections and fuel lines in the injection system should be inspected for chafing and corrosion every 12,000 miles (20,000 km) in a workshop.
Exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR)
Vehicles with a B30F engine in combination with automatic transmission are equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation system. This makes for cleaner exhaust gases when driving on half throttle. The system consists of an EGR channel and an EGR valve operated under a vacuum.
Check function of Exhaust
Gas Recirculation valve
The exhaust gas recirculation valve should be checked every 12,000 miles (20,000 km) in a workshop.
Clean Exhaust Gas Recirculation
The exhaust gas recirculation manifold port should be cleaned every 12,000 miles (20,000 km) in a workshop.
Replace Exhaust Gas Recirculation valve
The exhaust gas recirculation valve should be replaced every 24,000 miles (40,000 km) in a workshop.
Clean and adjust spark plugs
Remove the spark plugs after every 6,000 miles (10,000 km) and adjust the electrode gap. The gap should be .028 - .032" (.7 - .8 mm).
Change sparks plugs
The spark plugs should be changed every 12,000 miles (20,000 km).
Tightening should preferably be done with a torque wrench. When fitting new plugs, be sure to fit the right type (see page 70). When changing the plugs, check that the suppressor connectors are in good condition. Cracked or damaged suppressors should be replaced.
When changing spark plugs, clean the cables and cable terminals, also the rubber seals. If the car is driven on roads where salt has been placed to counteract skidding, spray the cables with suitable water-resistant spray.
Ignition timing and dwell angle
Distributor breaker points and condenser
Distributor advance mechanism
The distributor braker points and condenser should be checked and the dwell angle and ignition timing should be adjusted every 12,000 miles (20,000 km). All adjusting work should be done by a workshop with the proper equipment. The distributor is one of the most sensitive units in the engine and careless handling can lead to decreased engine output and high fuel consumption or even serious damage to the engine.
The distributor advance mechanism should be checked every 24,000 miles (40,000 km).
Ignition wiring system is composed of primary and secondary systems. The secondary systems are the high tension leads connecting the distributor cap with the spark plugs and the coil.
These wires should be inspected at each engine tune-up, and should be replaced if cracked, frayed or damaged from abrasions. It is important to clean all parts of this secondary system thoroughly because dirt greatly reduces the available voltage to the spark plugs.
Distributor cap and rotor
Check the distributor cap and rotor for cracks, carbons formation, dirt and erosion.
Vacuum fittings, hoses and connections
Unstable idle, misfiring or poor emission control is often caused by leaking vacuum hoses or connections. Check hoses and connections on distributor vacuum unit, EGR valve and part if so equipped, heater control servo systems and hydraulic brake servo.
Spark control vacuum regulator,
and associated hoses and
Check vacuum retard regulator and associated hoses and connections. The advance or retard characteristics can be measured with a stroboscope.
Check coolant level
The cooling system must be well filled with coolant and not leak if it is to operate at maximum efficiency. Check the coolant level when filling up with fuel. The level should be between the "Max" and "Min" marks on the expansion tank. The check should be made with particular thoroughness when the engine is new or the cooling system has been empty.
Do not remove the filler cap other than for topping-up with coolant. Frequent removal may prevent coolant circulation between the engine and the expansion tank during engine warming up and cooling.
Top up with coolant
Top up with coolant by filling the expansion tank when its level has gone down to the "Min" mark. Use all the year round a mixture of 50 % reliable anti-freeze/summer coolant and 50 % water. Top up to the "Max" mark.
NOTE. Do not top up with water only, particularly during the wintertime. Water by itself reduces both the rust-protective and anti-freeze qualities of the coolant. It can also cause damage to the cooling system if ice should form in the expansion tank. NOTE. In very warm parts of the country where there is little risk of frost, water can be used without anti-freeze.
We recommend, however, that rustproofing agent is added.
The coolant retains its properties for approx. 24,000 miles (40,000 km) when it should be changed. A suitable time to do this would be in the autumn to preclude any damage by frost during the coming winter. To drain the cooling system, open the drain tap located on the right-hand side of the engine and disconnect the hose connected to the bottom of the radiator. The expansion tank is emptied by removing it from its brackets and lifting it to a sufficient height so that the coolant can flow into the radiator.
Before filling with new coolant, flush the entire system with clean water.
The cooling system is filled with coolant
through the filler opening on top of the radiator. When this is being done, the heater
control should be set to max. heat to ensure that the entire system is filled.
Fill the radiator to the top and tighten the cap. Then fill the expansion tank to the "Max" level or slightly above this.
Run the engine for a short period, switch off the ignition and allow the engine to cool. Check that the radiator is full and that the coolant in the expansion tank is at "Max". If necessary, top up the system.
Cooling system, hoses and connections
Check all cooling system hoses and connections for defects or deterioration of hoses and loose clamps or fittings.
Checking and adjusting idling speed
and mixture ratio
These checks should be made every 12,000 miles (20,000 km) in a workshop.
Regular grade of leaded or low-leaded fuel (with an octane rating of at least 91 RON* should be used.
* Research method
1. Never let the engine run without the battery being connected.
2. Never use a fast charger as a starting aid.
3. When using a fast charger to charge the battery in the vehicle, the battery should be disconnected from the rest of the electrical system.
4. The control unit must not overheat above 185°F (+85°C). The control unit must not be connected (the engine started) when the ambient temperature exceeds 158°F (+70°C). (With paintwork, etc., when the vehicle is being stove-heated, it may not be driven out of the oven, it must be conveyed out. If there is risk of temperatures exceeding 185°F (+85°C), the control unit must first be removed.
5. The ignition should be switched off before connecting or disconnecting the control unit.
6. For all work with fuel lines, great care must be taken to ensure that no dirt enters the system. Even small dust particles can jam injectors.
Any work to be done on the electronic fuel injection system should be carried out by a shop which has the proper equipment for doing this.
This car is equipped with an alternator.
When changing the battery or when carrying out work involving the electrical system, the following should be observed.
1. A battery connection to the wrong terminal will damage the rectifiers. Before connections are made, check the polarity of the battery with a voltmeter.
2. If assist batteries are used for starting, they must be properly
connected to prevent the rectifiers from being
The negative lead from the assist battery for starting must be connected to the negative terminal stud of the car battery and the positive lead from the assist battery for starting to the positive terminal stud.
3. If a fast charger is used for charging the battery, the car battery leads
should be disconnected.
A fast charger may not be used as an aid in starting.
4. Never disconnect the battery circuit (for example, to charge the battery) while the engine is running, as this will immediately ruin the alternator. Always make sure that all the battery connections are properly tightened.
5. If any electrical welding work is made on the vehicle, the ground lead and all the connecting cables of the alternator must be placed as near the welding point as possible.
Check battery electrolyte level
Check the battery electrolyte level when filling the tank with fuel. The level should be between 3/16-3/8" (5-10 mm) above the top of the cell plates. If the level is too low, top up with distilled water.
Never check the electrolyte level by lighting a match. The gases formed in the cell are highly explosive.
Check state of change of the battery
The state of charge of the battery should be checked after every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). See page 70 for battery data. At the same time, check the lead terminals and terminal studs to make sure that they are tight, coated with grease and that the battery is firmly in position.
Check headlight alignment
The alignment of the headlights should be checked in a workshop periodically. Remember that the section of the road lit up by the headlights can vary depending on the load in the vehicle.
The replacement of bulbs in the various lighting units is shown on the following pages. Make sure when installing bulbs that the guide pin on the socket fits into its corresponding recess.
When installing bulbs, do not touch the glass with your fingers. The reason for this is that grease, oil or any other impurities can be carbonized onto the bulb and damage the reflector.
Changing headlights (Sealed Beam)
Sealed Beam headlights are changed as a complete unit.
1. Remove the outer rim by pulling it upwards-forwards.
2. Slacken the screws for the inner rim a couple of turns. Turn the inner rim and lift it off.
3. Remove the headlight contact by pulling it backwards. Lift out the headlight.
4. Install the new headlight and make sure that it is installed properly.
Check headlight alignment.
Replace bulbs for front turn signals
and parking lights
Remove the two Phillips screws which hold the glass. The bulbs can now be removed by pressing them inwards and then turning them a little counter-clockwise. The inner bulb (1) is for the parking light, the outer (2) for the turn signal.
Replace bulbs for rear turn signals, parking
light, stop lights and back-up lights
Remove the four Phillips screws which hold the glass. The bulbs can now be removed by pressing them inwards and turning them slightly counter-clockwise at the same time.
1. Turn signal
2. Back-up light
3. Tail light
4. Stop light
Replace bulbs for side marker lights
Remove the two Phillips screws which hold the glass. The bulb can now be removed by pressing it inwards and turning it slightly counter-clockwise.
Replacing the bulbs for the
license plate light
The license plate light is provided with two bulbs. Should any of them require replacing, proceed as follows:
1. Press in the tab catch in the bulb housing by inserting a screwdriver in the opening on the left-hand side of the housing. Pull the bulb housing out of its attachment.
2. Pull out the housing end not provided with a guide pin.
3. The bulb is now accessible for replacing. When installing the unit, first insert the guide pins in the sockets (see picture) and then press on the housing. Check that the rubber strip fits properly in position and press the lamp housing securely into position.
Replace bulbs for engine
Release the screw holding the lamp globe.
The bulb is then accessible for replacement.
Replace bulb for glove locker
Pull the light glass straight down for access to the bulb.
Replace bulb for roof light
To replace the bulb for the roof light, remove the light glass by pressing in the catch with a narrow screwdriver which is inserted in the opening on the right-hand side. Then pull off the glass. The bulb is then accessible for replacement.
Replace bulbs for instrument lighting
and heater control lighting
Owing to the location of the bulbs, their replacement should be made by a shop.
There are 12 fuses located at the bottom of the dashboard near the left front door. Reading downwards the fuses protect the following:
|1. Cigarette lighter||8 A|
|2. Windshield wiper/washer
|3. El. heated rear window
|4. Heater element driver's seat
Seat belt pilot light
|5. Turn signals
Instruments, Warning lights
|6. Hazard warning
Engine comp. lighting
Starter cut-out relay
|7. Fuel pump
Glove box light
|8. Stop light
|9. Ignition Interlock
Buzzer, seat belt
|10. Instrument Lighting||5 A|
|11. Tail light, left
Side marker light, front (left), rear
License plate light, left
|12. Tail light, right
Side marker light, front (right)
License plate light, right
Note: Fuse No. 9 controls the Seat Belt Ignition Interlock System if the vehicle is so equipped See page 22 for instructions on removing fuse No, 9 to facilitate emergency starting.
Check clutch free play
To avoid risk of the clutch slipping, the clutch travel should be checked and adjusted if necessary every 6,000 miles (10,000 km).
Check propeller shaft
After every 6,000 miles (10,000 km) or once a year the rubber seal on the spline shaft and the universal joints should be checked. If the rubber seal is damaged, it should be replaced and the new seal filled with molybdenum disulphide grease.
After every 6,000 miles (10,000 km) the vehicle should be taken to a shop for a check on the function of the brakes. Also check the brake pads.
Replace booster cylinder air filter and
Every third year or 48,000 miles (80,000 km) the car should be taken to a shop for replacement of the booster cylinder air filter. The brake system seals should also be replaced at the same time. See also page 45 "Brake fluid".
Check ball joints, steering rods, etc.
After every 12,000 miles (20,000 km) the vehicle should be taken to a shop for a check on the front end concerning excessive play in the ball joints, steering gear, etc.
After every 12,000 miles (20,000 km) or at least once a year, the ball joint seal should also be checked for damage and leakage. When new seals are installed they should be filled with the recommended grease.
The wheels have size 5 1/2 J 15" F.H. All wheels are accurately balanced. The tires are 175 R 15 radial tubeless.
With the 175 R 15 tire, the maximum permissible speed is 115 mph (180 kmph).
If possible, radial tires should always be used, even in the wintertime.
The wheels should always be used on the same side throughout their use. This is particularly important for studded snow tires, otherwise it can happen that the studs loosen.
Studded snow tires should also have a running-in period of between 300-600 miles (500-1,000 km). During this period try to avoid driving hard round bends and at high speeds, also hefty braking and acceleration.
Tire chains can be used on all the car's four wheels providing that the chains are fine-linked and do not project so much from the tire that they can chafe against the brake caliper or other components.
Strap-on emergency chains must not be used since the space between the brake calipers and wheel rims does not permit this.
Check tire wear pattern
Check the tires at regular intervals for damage and abnormal wear, also for particles which can fasten in the tread. Have the wheels balanced if necessary. Poorly balanced wheels will rapidly increase the wear on tires as well as make for poor travelling comfort and driving characteristics. The tires have a so-called "wear indicator" in the form of a number of narrow strips running across or parallel to the tread. When about 1/16" (1.5 mm) is left on the tread, these strips show up and warn the car owner in good time that the tire is showing signs of wear.
Check tire pressure
Make a habit of checking the pressure in the tires regularly. The simplest way to do this is to check the pressure at a service station while filling up with fuel. Do not forget the spare wheel when checking the tire pressure.
During driving, the temperature of the tires rises and also the tire pressure in relation to the speed of the vehicle and its load. Normally the tire pressure should only be checked when the tires are cold. When the tires are warm, a change in pressure should take place only when air must be pumped into the tires.
Excessively low tire pressure is one of the most common reasons for tire wear. Tires which are insufficiently inflated also result in difficult steering and high fuel consumption. Too high tire pressure tends to make for poor travelling comfort.
Be careful when parking the car next to the pavement not to damage the tires against the curb stone.
Changing a wheel
The spare wheel, jack and tool kit are stowed in the cargo compartment. When the car is to be jacked up, the jack should be on level, firm ground. Avoid creeping under the car when it is jacked up since there is risk that the car might topple off the jack, especially if the ground is soft.
Before the vehicle is jacked up, the parking brake should be applied and one of the gears engaged.
Also block one of the wheels which is standing on the ground.
1. Unscrew and take off the wheel cap.
2. Loosen the wheel nuts 1/2-1 turn with the help of the wrench. All the nuts have right-hand threads which are loosened by turning them counter-clockwise.
3. Insert the lifting arm of the jack in the appropriate jack attachment of the wheel to be changed. Make sure the jack fits well in the attachment. Jack up the side of the car far enough to lift the wheel off the ground.
4. Unscrew the wheel nuts completely and lift off the wheel. Be careful when lifting off the wheel that the threads of the studs are not damaged.
1. Clean the contact surfaces between wheel and hub. Install the hub cap on the wheel rim from the inside of the rim.
2. Lift on the wheel.
Tighten the nuts until the wheel makes good contact with the flange.
3. Lower the vehicle and tighten the nuts alternately.
4. Install the wheel cap.
Do not rotate the raised wheel if the car is equipped with a limited slip differential as this will also move the other rear wheel on the ground, so that the car may topple off the jack.
The car should be washed often since such things as dirt, dust, insects, tar spots etc. adhere firmly to the body and may damage the paintwork. During the winter, special care should be observed to wash off all road salt residue as soon as possible in order to prevent corrosion.
When washing the car, do not expose it to sunlight. Soften up the dirt on the underside with a water jet and then rinse the whole body with a light jet until the dirt has loosened. After this, wash off the dirt with a sponge, using plenty of water. Use preferably lukewarm but not hot water.
A detergent can be used to facilitate washing. Special detergents are now available on the market-even household detergent can be used. A suitable mixture is about 1 1/2-31/2 fl. ozs. (5-10 cl) of fluid dish washer to 2.6 US galls=2.2 Imp. galls (10 liters) of water. Asphalt spots and tar pittings can easily be removed with Kerosene or Tar Remover but this should be done after the washing.
When a detergent is used, the car should be well rinsed down with clean water afterwards. Then dry carefully with a soft clean chamois leather. Use different leathers for the windows and the remainder of the car, otherwise using the same leather can cause greasy smears on the windows.
When washing the car, remember to clean the drain holes in the doors and bottom rails.
Chromium-plated and anodized parts should be washed with clean water as soon as they become dirty. This is particularly important if you drive on gravel roads which are treated with chemicals to keep the dust down or in the winter when salt is used to melt the snow. After the car has been washed, apply wax or anti-rust preparation.
The vehicle does not need polishing until the surface finish begins to lose its lustre and normal washing is no longer sufficient to make it shine again and remove the layer of dirt in the surface. Under normal conditions it is sufficient to polish the vehicle a couple of times a year on condition that it is carefully looked after and thoroughly washed as soon as it has become dirty. Before the vehicle is polished, it should be carefully washed and dried to avoid scratches on the paintwork.
Before applying wax, make sure that the surface is absolutely clean.
It may often be necessary to use kerosene for cleaning.
Waxing should neither be considered as a substitute for polishing nor as a necessary protection for the paintwork against unfavorable weather. For the most part waxing is not necessary until one year after delivery of the car.
Cleaning the upholstery
The leather upholstery is cleaned with a damp cloth, possibly with a mild soap solution. For removal of difficult spots, consult an expert concerning choice of cleaning agent.
The fabric-plastic in the upholstery is cleaned with a mild detergent. For more difficult spots, use a good household detergent.
On no account must gasoline, naphtha, carbon tetrachloride or similar cleaning agent be used on the upholstery, since these can damage both leather and fabric-plastic.
Cleaning floor mats
The floor mats should be hoovered or brushed clean regularly, especially during the winter when they should be taken out for drying. Take the opportunity of cleaning thoroughly at the same time where the mats have lain.
Spots on textile mats can be removed with a mild detergent.
Your Volvo is anti-rust treated at the factory. Inspection and any touching-up of the rust protection should be done at regular intervals and at least once a year. The enclosed body sections should also be anti-rust treated by spray application at least once a year. If any touching-up of the rust protection is necessary, this should be done immediately to prevent moisture from seeping in and consequently damaging it.
Paint damage requires immediate attention to avoid rusting. Make it a habit to check the finish regularly and touch-up if necessary, for instance when washing the car. Paint repairs require special equipment and skill and you should contact your Volvo dealer for any extensive damages.
However, minor scratches are a "nuisance job" for a paint shop and you can save a lot by repairing yourself. Volvo dealers can supply touch-up paint in tins or spray cans.
NOTE: Use the paint code which you will find on the Vehicle Designation Plate on the bulkhead.
Scars on the surface where the paint has not been completely penetrated, can be made directly after light scraping to remove dirt.
Deeper scars, down to the bare metal:
1. Scrape or sand the damaged surface lightly and break the edges of the scar.
2. Thoroughly mix the primer and apply it with a small brush or a match.
3. When the primed surface is dry, the paint can be applied by a brush.
Mix the paint thoroughly, apply several thin paint coats and let flush after each application.
NOTE: The vehicle should be well cleaned, dry and have a temperature exceeding 60°F (+15°C).
BEFORE A LONG-DISTANCE TRIP COLD WEATHER
If you are thinking of traveling abroad with your car or taking a long journey, you should have the car checked at a shop. You will enjoy your journey better if you know that your car is in perfect trim. Irritating incidents can be avoided as well as expensive and time-absorbing stoppages. Wherever you go there should be a Volvo workshop within easy call to attend to your car if required.
However, it is always a good idea before making a trip to ensure that, at least on a minor scale, you have with you a comprehensive touring kit. This is particularly the case if you anticipate widely varying conditions as regards climate, roads and the prevalence of much dust. Many shops stock special kits for this purpose. Remember when filling up with fuel to observe the existing fuel recommendations. If you prefer to look over your vehicle yourself, the following tips are worthwhile noting:
1. Check brakes, front wheel alignment and
2. Check engine and drive units with regard to fuel, oil, coolant leakage.
3. Examine tires carefully. Replace worn tires.
4. Check engine is running satisfactorily and that fuel consumption is normal.
5. Examine state of charge of the battery and clean terminals.
6. Check tool equipment.
7. Check lighting.
When cold weather is on the way, it is time to think of the winter servicing of your car. The first night of frost can come as an unpleasant surprise unless preventive precautions have been taken.
Engine cooling system
A good quality anti-freeze/summer coolant should be used all the year round. Thus, the cooling system should always contain water plus anti-freeze and rust inhibitor, even during the summer. Experience has also shown that extremely weak anti-freeze solutions (10-20%) are very unfavorable from the point of view of rust protection. For this reason, the quantity of anti-freeze/summer coolant should amount to about 50% of the coolant, that is, 6.5 U.S. qts.= 5.5 Imp. qts. (6.2 liters), this lowering the freezing point to -30°F (-35°C). Alcohol is not recommended as an anti-freeze agent since it evaporates at normal engine temperature.
Engine fuel system
During the wintertime with its wide variation in temperature, condensate forms in the fuel tank and this can impair the running of the engine. This can be eliminated by adding a suitable gas-line anti-freeze (but not methylated spirit) to the fuel. Also, there is less risk of condensate forming if the tank is kept well-filled.
Engine lubricating system
During the winter, multigrade oil SAE 10 W-30 should be used for the engine lubricating system. At very low temperatures (below -0°F = -18°C) multigrade oil SAE 5W-20 is recommended. These oils reach the lubricating points in the engine more easily at low temperature and also facilitate cold starting. See page 43.
The electrical system in the vehicle is subjected to greater stresses during the winter than during the warm summer months. The lighting and starter motor are used more and since the capacity of the battery is also considerably lower at low air temperature, the state of charge must be checked more often and, if necessary, the battery charged. If the battery voltage is excessively low, there is risk of the battery being damaged by frost.
During very cold weather, the brakes are subjected to splash and condensate which can result in the parking brake freezing up if left on.
When you park the car, do not apply the parking brake but engage first gear or reverse and if possible place blocks behind the wheels. See also page 27.
Just as anti-freeze is added to the cooling system during the winter to prevent frost damage, anti-freeze should also be added to the water container for the windshield washer. This is particularly important because the windshield during the winter frequently becomes dirty and is often splashed with water which rapidly freezes and thus necessitates the frequent use of the windshield washer and wipers. Your Volvo dealer can supply you with suitable antifreeze for this purpose.
Anti-freeze for door locks
A frozen door lock is one of the most irritating things that can happen to a car owner. Many valuable minutes early in the morning can be wasted warming up keys and melting ice in locks. Remember this in good time and lubricate the locks in advance with some suitable anti-freeze agent. Such agents are now available in small handy tubes which can easily find room in a handbag or coat pocket.