1 9 7 1
Before the vehicle was delivered from the factory it was subjected to a very through inspection. Your dealer, in his turn, carried out a further delivery inspection in accordance with the specifications of the Volvo Factory. In addition to this there is the service inspection after 2,500 km (1,500 miles) when the oil in the engine, gearbox and final drive are changed. Servicing of the vehicle should thereafter follow the routine in the service book which is based on a service inspection after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). The simplest way to provide the vehicle with the servicing it requires is to have all the servicing done by a Volvo workshop. You will then have the work specified in the service book carried out in accordance with recommended prices and the workshop stamp in the service book will show when the vehicle was serviced.
When the car was being designed particular attention was given to the "safety details" (e.g. front end, brakes and steering). They are calculated to withstand the severest stresses with a wide safety margin. However, if you use your car for hard driving, you should take the precaution of checking these parts during the useful lifetime of the car, for instance, when front-end components are being reconditioned.
If you prefer to carry out the simpler servicing procedures yourself or if you are sometimes obliged to have them done by a workshop outside the Volvo organization, this chapter contains some advice as to when and how they should be carried out. For the sake of convenience, the servicing procedures have been summarized in a maintenance scheme in the next two pages.
To simplify maintenance of your Volvo, the vehicle has been equipped with ball joints, steering rods and propeller shafts of such a construction that they do not require regular lubrication. This has been possible due to the fact that points that normally require lubricating have been packed with very durable grease at the factory and then carefully sealed, thus obviating the need for subsequent lubrication.
However, to ensure that these parts are functioning properly, it is necessary to inspect their seals and rubber sleeves thoroughly after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles) or at least once a year.
Oil in the gearbox, final drive, steering box, servo steering and carburettors should be changed or the oil level checked after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles) suitably in connection with the 10,000 km (6,000 miles) inspection. The measures taken in this inspection are also to be found in the lubricating chart.
Always use only first-class lubricant of a well-known make. The right lubricants in the right quantity at the right time will increase both the lifetime and the reliability of your car.
1 Body Lubrication
In order to avoid rattle and unnecessary wear, the body should be lubricated once a year. The hinges on the bonnet, doors and luggage compartment lid as well as door stops should be lubricated every 10,000 km (6,000 miles)*). Moreover, during the winter months the locks on the doors and luggage compartment lid should be given some anti-freeze to prevent them from freezing up.
|No. Lubricating point||Lubricant|
|1. Bonnet catch||Paraffin wax|
|2. Bonnet hinges*||Oil|
|3. Ventilator window catches and hinges||Oil|
|4. Catches||Molybdenum - disulphide grease|
|5. Roof opening wind breaker||Oil|
|6. Door handle lock buttons|
|7. Door lock outer sliding surfaces||Paraffin wax|
|8. Luggage compartment hinges*||Oil|
|9. Luggage compartment lock|
|10. Door checks*||Paraffin wax|
|11. Door hinges*||Grease|
|12. Driving seat slide rails and catches||Paraffin wax|
|13. Window lifts|
Locks (Accessible after door upholstery panels have been removed)
|Oil and grease|
2 Check the oil level in engine
The oil level in the engine should be checked each time the fuel tank is filled. The check should be carried out with the engine switched off but warm and, in order to obtain comparable values, about 1 minute after it has been stopped. Wipe the dipstick before measuring. The oil level should be between the two marks on the dipstick. It must never be permitted to go down below the lower mark but, on the other hand, it should not be above the upper mark since oil consumption will then be abnormally high. If necessary, top up by filling through the oil filler hole on the rocker-arm casing with new oil of the same type already in the engine.
3 Change oil in engine
With a new or newly reconditioned engine, the oil should be changed after the first 2,500 km (1,500 miles). Subsequent oil changing is according to the intervals given below. The intervals will depend to a great extent on the type of oil used. For engine lubrication, oil quality "For Service MS", is to be used. As far as viscosity is concerned, multigrade oil is recommended. These oils are better suited for demanding driving conditions, for example continuous driving in city traffic with incessant stopping and starting and with lengthy idling periods.
For engine oil with viscosity SAE 10 W-30 (multigrade), 10 W-40, 10 W-50 or 20 W-50 the oil should be changed every 10,000 km (6,000 miles), or at least once a year.
If engine oil with viscosity SAE 10 W (single grade), 20/20 W or 30 is used, the oil should be changed every 5,000 km (3,000 miles), or at least twice a year.
At very low temperature (below -20°C, -4°F) multigrade oil SAE 5 W-20 is recommended. However, this oil should not be used when the temperature is continuously above 0°C (32°F). The old oil is drained off by removing the drain plug on the sump. Drainage should take place after driving when the oil is still warm.
At each oil change check that the oil level in the center spindle of the carburettors is about 6 mm (1/4") from the top of the spindle. If it is not, fill up with oil ATF Type F (Automatic Transmission Fluid). If this oil is not available, use Type A or Dexron.
The carburettors are adjusted and tested in a test bench at the factory with a C0-gauge. No adjustment of the carburettors is required other than when carrying out repairs to them.
5 -6 Gearbox M 400
The oil in the gearbox should be checked after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). The oil level should be up to the filler hole. If necessary top up with the recommended oil.
After every 40,000 km (25,000 miles) the oil in the gearbox should be changed. In the case of a new or reconditioned gearbox the oil should also be changed after the first 2,500 km (1,250 miles) and the gearbox thoroughly flushed with the same type of oil subsequently used. The old oil should be drained off immediately after the vehicle has been run while the oil is still warm.
7 -8 Transmission with overdrive M 410
For cars fitted with an overdrive, the oil level should be checked and the oil changed parallel with similar procedure for the gearbox. The overdrive and the gearbox have a common oil level and oil filler hole. Make sure when topping-up that the oil runs over into the overdrive. The oil is drained out by removing the gearbox drain plug and the cap for the overdrive oil strainer. At each oil change the oil filter of the overdrive should be cleaned. This should be done by a Volvo workshop.
9 Automatic transmission BW 35
The oil level in the automatic transmission should be checked every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). Under the bonnet (hood) at the rear of the engine there is a marked dipstick located in the filler tube. Note that the dipstick has different marks for a hot and cold transmission. The oil level should be checked with the car on level ground. With the engine idling in position "P", the level should be between the upper and lower graduation marks on the dipstick. If topping up is required, oil under the designation Automatic Transmission Fluid, Type F, should be used. If this oil is not available, use Type A or Dexron.
The dipstick should be wiped with a nylon cloth, paper or chamois leather. Cloths which leave residues on the dipstick must be avoided.
10 -11 Final drive
Check the oil level in the final drive every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). The oil should reach up to the filler hole. If necessary top up with oil. The oil in the final drive should first be changed after 2,500 km (1,250 miles). The oil is drained by removing the bottom plug in the final drive casing. The oil should be drained when it is warm. Clean the bottom plug thoroughly.
After this only the oil level need be checked and topped up when necessary.
12 -13 Differential lock
Cars fitted with a differential lock are delivered from the factory with a rear axle oil according to the American Military Standard MIL-L-2105 B provided with an additive for rear axles with differential lock. A similar type of oil should be used for subsequent topping-up and changing. Oil level checking and oil changing are to be carried to at the same intervals and in the same way as for a rear axle without differential lock.
14 Steering box (mechanical steering)
The oil level in the steering box should be checked after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles), The oil level should be up to the filler plug. If necessary, top up with new oil. As a rule, the oil in the steering box does not need to be changed except during over-hauling. Should the oil for any reason need to be changed, the old oil should be sucked up by means of an oil syringe which is inserted into the filler hole.
15 Servo steering
The oil level in the servo steering should be checked every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). Before checking wipe the oil container clean. Then remove the cap and check the level with the engine not running. The oil level should be about 5-10 mm (1/4") above the level mark in the container. If the level is lower than this, top up with oil, with the engine stopped to prevent air from being sucked into the container. Start the engine and recheck the oil level, which should now fall to the level mark. When the engine stops, the level should rise to about 5-10 mm (1/4") above the mark.
The oil and filter in the servo steering do not need replacing other than during repairs or reconditioning.
The brake system is fitted with a tandem-type brake fluid container with a section for each circuit but with the same filler hole. The brake fluid level should be between the "Max" and "Min" marks.
(On vehicles with right-hand drive the clutch fluid container should be filled almost to the top with brake fluid.)
17 Crankcase ventilation system
The engine is provided with positive crankcase ventilation which prevents the gases in the crankcase from being released into the atmosphere. Instead, they are sucked into the intake manifold and take part in the combustion process whereupon they are blown out through the exhaust pipe together with the other combustion gases. Every 25,000 miles (40,000 km) remove and clean the nipple (1), the hoses (2 and 3) and the flame protector (4). Rubber hoses should also be replaced if they are in a poor condition.
18 Oil filter
The engine is fitted with a full-flow type oil filter, which means that all the oil passes through the filter on its way from the oil pump to the various lubricating points. Impurities in the oil are collected in the filter and gradually block it. For this reason, the filter must be changed every 6,000 miles (10,000 km). Scrap the old filter then.
If the oil filter is replaced without the engine oil being changed, the engine should be topped up with 1.7 US pints/1.4 Imp. pints (0.8 liter).
19 Fuel filter
The fuel filter should be cleaned after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). Loosen the plug and clean the filter in the plug. Check that the gasket is not damaged and make sure that it seals properly when the plug with filter is re-fitted.
20 Replacing the air cleaner paper filter
The air cleaner consists of a plastic cover with replaceable paper filter insert. The insert should be replaced after every 40,000 km (25,000 miles). Replacement should be carried out more frequently if the driving conditions are often dusty. No other kind of servicing is required outside these intervals.
To replace release the tensioning clips securing the air cleaner cover. The cover can then be opened so much that the insert is accessible for replacement.
20 a Replacing foam plastic filter for
evaporative control system
On vehicles fitted with an evaporative control system, the foam plastic filter in the holder on the cowl to the right in the engine compartment should be replaced every 40,000 km (25,000 miles).
The valve clearances should be checked after every 10,000 km (6000 miles). This check should be carried out by a workshop.
22 Compression test
To get some idea of the condition of the engine, a compression test should be made after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). This test should preferably be carried out by a workshop.
23 Fan belt
The fan belt tension should be checked every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). Due to wear or dirt, this belt can start slipping with poor cooling and poor alternator output as the result.
The check can suitably be carried out by a Volvo workshop.
To test the tension provisionally press in the fan belt at a point midway between the alternator and the fan. It should be possible to press down the belt about 10 mm (W) with normal pressure (11.5-14 kp = 85-100 lb.ft.)
24 Check coolant level
The cooling system must be well filled with coolant and not leak if it is to operate at maximum efficiency. Check the coolant level when filling up with fuel. The level should be between the "Max" and "Min" marks on the expansion tank. The check should be carried out with particular thoroughness when the engine is new or the cooling system has been empty.
Do not remove the filler cap other than for topping-up with coolant. Frequent removal may prevent coolant circulation between the engine and the expansion tank during engine warming up and cooling.
Top-up with coolant
Top up with coolant by filling the expansion tank when its level has gone down to the "Min" mark. Use 50% good quality anti-freeze mixed with 50% water all the year round and top up to the "Max" mark.
NOTE. Do not top up with water only.
Water by itself reduces both the rust-protective and anti-freeze qualities of the coolant. It can also cause damage to the cooling system if ice should form in the expansion tank.
Note. In countries with very warm climate where risk of frost is rare, ordinary water can be used in the cooling system.
25 Change coolant
The coolant retains its properties for approx. 2 years when it should be changed. A suitable time to make the change is during the autumn to ensure against any damage by frost during the coming winter months. To drain the cooling system, open the drain tap located at the right-hand side of the engine and disconnect the hose attached to the bottom of the radiator. The expansion tank is emptied by removing it from its brackets and lifting it to a sufficient height so that the coolant flows into the radiator.
For cars fitted with an oil cooler for the engine oil, the plug underneath at the back of the oil cooler must be released.
26 Check sparking plugs
The spark plugs should be removed and checked every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). The electrode gap is adjusted to 0.7- 0.8 mm (0.028-0.032"). Replace the spark plugs if the electrodes are very much burnt. With normal driving, the spark plugs can last for at least 20,000 km (12,500 miles).
When replacing a spark plug, make sure that the proper type is fitted. As standard, Bosch W 200 T 35 or corresponding of another make should be used.
If the car is driven, for example, in town traffic, Bosch W 175 T 35 or corresponding can be used. The spark plugs should preferably be tightened with a torque wrench. Tightening torque is 3.5-4.0 kpm (25- 29 lb. ft.).
When changing the spark plugs, check that the suppressor connectors are in good condition. Cracked or damaged connectors should be replaced.
27 - 28 Ignition system
The distributor contact breaker gap and the engine ignition timing should be checked every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). All adjusting work should be done by a workshop with the proper equipment. The distributor is one of the most sensitive units in the engine and careless handling can lead to decreased engine output and high fuel consumption or even serious damage to the engine.
Fuel with an octane value of 100 (ROT*) is primarily recommended for normal driving. Knocking or pre-ignition can occur if petrol with low octane value is used. However, if highway motoring is often involved, an octane value of at least 97 (ROT*) should be used.
In those countries where it is not possible to obtain fuel with 97 octane rating, the engine can be adjusted to a lower rating.
ROT* = Research Method.
29 Check the battery electrolyte level
To ensure that the battery functions properly, the electrolyte level should be checked regularly. A suitable time to do this is when the fuel tank is being filled. The electrolyte level should be up to the slit tubes. If the level is too low top up with distilled water. Never add too much distilled water since this can cause the acid to splash over and possibly damage the engine compartment. Never check the electrolyte level by lighting a match. The gases formed in the cells are highly explosive.
30 Check state of charge of the battery
The state of charge of the battery should be checked after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). The check is made with an hydrometer which shows the specific gravity of the battery acid (this varies with the state of charge of the battery). See page 58. At the same time, check also that the lead terminals are well tightened to the battery studs and smeared with grease. The battery should be firmly fixed. If necessary, wipe the lead terminals and terminal studs clean with a cloth or brush them with a wire brush and re-grease them.
31 Check headlight alignment
The alignment of the headlights should be checked in a workshop after every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). Remember that the section of the road lit up by the headlights can vary according to the load in the vehicle.
|This car is fitted with an alternator.
When changing the battery or when carrying out work involving the electrical system, the following should be observed.
1. A battery connection to the wrong terminal will damage the rectifiers. Before the connections are made, check the polarity of the battery with a voltmeter.
2. If extra batteries are used for starting, they must be properly connected
to prevent the rectifiers from
3. If a rapid charger is used for charging the battery, the car battery leads
should be disconnected.
4. Never disconnect the battery circuit (for example, to change the battery) while the engine is running, as this will immediately ruin the alternator. Always make sure that all the battery connections are properly tightened.
5. Before carrying out any electrical welding on the car, first disconnect the battery earth lead and all the cables to the alternator and voltage regulator. Make sure that the ends of the loose cables do not earth against the car framework. Insulate well if necessary.
Replacement of bulbs
The headlight bulbs should be changed every year, suitably during the autumn. When installing headlight bulbs, do not touch the glass with your fingers. The reason for this is that grease, oil or any other impurities can be carbonized onto the bulb and this could damage the reflector.
The following pages explain how the bulbs in the various lighting units are replaced. Make sure when fitting lamps that the guide pin on the socket fits into its corresponding recess.
Replacing the headlight bulbs
The headlight bulbs are replaced from inside the engine compartment in the following way:
1. Remove the protective cover over the space behind the headlight.
2. Remove the contact for the bulb holder and rubber sleeve.
3. Remove the spring which fixes the lamp holder in the correct position.
4. Lift out the bulb. When fitting the new bulb in the insert make sure that the guide pin engages in its notch. Do not touch the bulb glass with your fingers!
Replacing the bulbs for the front turn
indicator flashers and the parking
Remove the two Philips screws which hold the glass. The bulbs can now be removed by pressing them inwards and then turning them a little anti-clockwise. The inner bulb is for the parking light, the outer for the flasher.
Replacing the bulbs for the rear turn
indicator flashers, parking lights, stop
lights and reversing lights
Remove the two Philips screws which hold the glass. The bulbs can now be removed by pressing them inwards and turning them slightly anti-clockwise at the same time. The top bulb is the flasher, the one under that is the reversing light, the next one under that the stop light and the one at the bottom the rear light. Make sure that the sealing strip fits well against the glass when it is refitted.
Replacing the bulbs for the
license plate light
The two bulbs for the license plate light are mounted on a holder located under the luggage compartment locking device. Loosen the two screws which hold the glass and remove it. The bulb is now accessible for changing.
Replacing the foglight bulbs
The bulbs for the foglights are replaced from inside the engine compartment. Remove the protection covering the space over the headlight and foglight. Squeeze together the spring holding the bulb and lift out the spring and bulb. The bulb is now accessible for replacement.
Because of the two bosses on the bulb socket, the bulb can only be fitted in one way.
Replacing the bulb for the roof light
To replace the bulb for the roof light, remove the light glass by pressing a narrow screwdriver straight into the hole in the glass as shown in the picture. The glass can then be removed. The glass is replaced after the bulb has been changed by first hooking it securely to the switch and then pressing it up with the hand.
Replacing the bulb for the lights for
the luggage and engine compartments
Slacken the screw holding the lamp shade. The bulb is now accessible for replacement.
Replacing the bulb for the glove
The bulb is mounted under the dashboard above the compartment lid. To remove the bulb, press it in a bit and then turn it anti-clockwise.
Replacing lamps for instrument panel
and heater control lighting
Because of the ideation of the above lamps, a Volvo workshop should be given the job of replacing them.
Replacing the side marker light bulbs
Remove the two cross head screws holding the glass. Take out the bulb by pressing it in slightly while turning it anti-clockwise at the same time.
32 Check the release arm free travel
To avoid risk of the clutch slipping, the release arm free travel should be checked and adjusted if necessary every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). For data see page 59. The clutch should be checked and adjusted at a workshop which has the proper equipment.
33 Check the propeller shaft
After every 10,000 km (6,000 miles) or once a year the rubber seal on the spline shaft and the universal joints should be checked. If the rubber seal is damaged, it should be replaced and the new seal filled with molybdenum disulphide grease.
34 Check the brakes
After every 10,000 km (6,000 miles) the vehicle should be taken to a Volvo workshop for a check on the functioning of the brakes.
35 Replacing the booster cylinder air filter
and overhaul of brakes
Every 60,000 km (36,000 miles) the car should be taken to a Volvo workshop for replacement of the booster cylinder air and damper filters.
Replacement should be more frequent when driving often on dusty roads. The brake system seals should also be replaced every 3rd year or 60,000 km (36,000 miles).
36 Check the front wheel alignment
Correct front wheel alignment is of vital importance for the steering of the vehicle. Faulty adjustment can mean heavy wear on the tires. For this reason, have the front wheel alignment checked regularly at your local Volvo workshop every 10,000 km (6,000 miles). If the vehicle has been in a collision involving heavy impact and it is suspected that the front end may have been affected, take the vehicle to a Volvo workshop for a check on the front wheel alignment as soon as possible. Volvo workshops have special measuring equipment for this purpose and can carry out this control quickly and efficiently. The front wheel alignment angles are given on page 59.
37 Check the ball joints, steering rods, etc.
After every 10,000 km (6,000 miles) the vehicle should be taken to a workshop for a check on the front end concerning excessive play in the ball joints, steering gear, etc.
After every 10,000 km (6,000 miles) or at least once a year, the ball joint seal should also be checked for damage and leakage. When new seals are fitted they should be filled with the recommended grease.
WHEELS AND TIRES
The car is fitted with pressed steel wheels with wheel cap which is bolted to the hub cap.
The wheels have size 5 1/2 J 15" F.H. All wheels are accurately balanced. The tires are radial type tubeless with size 165 SR 15 (on certain markets 165 HR 15).
With the 165 SR 15 tire, the maximum permissible speed is 185 km.p.h. (115 m.p.h.).
Many tire makes have a so-called "wear indicator" in the form of a number of narrow strips running across or parallel to the tread. When about 1.5 mm (1/16 ") is left on the tread, these strips show up and warn the car owner in good time that the tire is showing signs of wear.
Recommended for use in winter are radial type tires with size 165 SR 15 (165 SR 380) with or without studs.
Chains must not be fitted on the Volvo 164 wheels since the space between the brake calipers and wheel rims does not permit this.
If possible, the wheels should always be used on the same side throughout their lifetime. This is particularly important for studded winter tires, otherwise it can happen that the studs loosen and fall out if the tire is placed on the other side. Check the tires at regular intervals for damage and abnormal wear, also for particles which can fasten in the tread. Have them balanced if necessary. Poorly balanced wheels will rapidly increase the wear on tires as well as make for poor travelling comfort.
38 Check the tire pressure
Make a habit of checking the pressure in the tires regularly. The simplest way to do this is to check the pressure at a service station while filling up with fuel. See page 59 for the correct air pressure. Do not forget the spare wheel when checking the air pressure.
During driving, the temperature of the tires rises and also the air pressure in relation to the speed of the vehicle and its load. Normally the air pressure should only be checked when the tires are cold. When the tires are warm, a change in pressure should take place only when air must be pumped into the tires.
Excessively low air pressure is one of the most common reasons for tire wear. If the pressure is too low, the tread shoulders bear the entire load and wear down very quickly. Tires which are insufficiently inflated also result in difficult steering and high fuel consumption. Too high air pressure means tire wear along the center of the tread. It also tends to make travelling less comfortable.
Be careful when parking the car next to the pavement not to damage the tires against the pavement curb.
Changing the wheels
Before jacking up the car, apply the parking brake and engage a gear.
Unscrew the crossheaded bolt (Fig. 1) for the wheel cap and take off the cap. Slacken the wheel nuts 1/2-1 turn with the box spanner and lever. All nuts are right-hand threaded, that is, they are slackened by being unscrewed anti-clockwise, see Fig. 2.
Fit the jack in the eyelet near to the wheel to be lifted, see Fig. 3. Jack up the car so high that the wheel comes off the ground.
Remove the wheel nuts and lift off the wheel. Observe due care that the threads on the wheel studs are not damaged. Remove the hub cap.
Clean the contact surfaces between wheel and hub. Fit the hub cap on the wheel, see Fig. 4. Fit the wheel. Tighten the wheel nuts so that the wheel is firmly against the hub.
Lower the car and tighten the wheel nuts finally, taking every other nut at a time. Screw on the wheel cap.
The car should be washed often to prevent dust, dirt, dead insects, tar spots, etc., from damaging the paintwork.
The washing should be regular and thorough particularly during the wintertime, since it is difficult to wash off the mixture of road salt, asphalt, dust and dirt if allowed to remain on the paintwork for some time. Such a mixture also stimulates rusting both on the paintwork and the underbody of the car.
When about to wash the car, place it out of strong sunlight and start by softening the dirt with a fine jet of water.
Apply a strong jet and wash thoroughly the entire underbody.
Wash the body with a sponge or brush and apply plenty of water.
Start at the roof and proceed downwards.
Use preferably tepid water, but not hot water. Make sure that nothing fastens in the sponge or brush which can damage the paintwork.
Car wash or ordinary fluid dish washing agent can be used to facilitate the washing. A suitable dosage of fluid dish washing agent is 5-10 cl (1 1/2-3 1/2 fl. ozs.) to 10 litres (2.2 Imp. galls. = 2.6 US galls.) water. Asphalt spots and tar splash can be removed with white spirit or similar. This should be done after the washing.
When a washing agent is used, the car should be well rinsed down with clean water afterwards. Begin with the roof of the car and work down the body. Then dry carefully with a soft clean chamois leather. Use different leathers for the windows and the remainder of the car, since using the same leather can cause greasy smears on the windows. When washing the car, remember to clean the drainage holes in the doors and bottom rail.
If the car is washed in any automatic high-pressure washing unit, the defroster control and the two fresh-air intakes to the front seat floor must be closed. Otherwise there is risk of water coming into the car owing to the high pressure of the water.
40 Polishing and waxing
The vehicle does not need polishing until the surface finish begins to lose its lustre and normal washing is no longer sufficient to make it shine again and remove the layer of dirt on the surface. Under normal conditions it is sufficient to polish the vehicle a couple of time a year on condition that it is carefully looked after and thoroughly washed as soon as it has become dirty or dusty.
Before the vehicle is polished, it should be carefully washed and dried to avoid scratches on the paintwork.
When about to apply wax, make sure that the surface is absolutely clean before application. It is often necessary to use cleaning naphtha for cleaning.
Waxing is no substitute for polishing. Nor is it necessary as a protection for the paintwork against unfavorable weather. Very often waxing should first be carried out at the earliest one year after delivery of the car.
Touching-up surface finish damage
The touching-up of any extensive damage to the synthetic finish requires the use of special equipment and skill, so that the repairing of any such damage should be entrusted to a Volvo workshop. Minor damage caused by flying gravel, etc. and small scratches can, however, be attended to by the owner himself.
Damage caused by flying stones requires immediate treatment if damage from rust is to be avoided. Always make a habit, therefore, of checking the finish regularly and carrying out touching-up if required. Volvo dealers can supply you with suitable touching-up paint in tins or spray bottles. Always make sure that you get exactly the right color. Touching-up is as follows:
1. If flying gravel should penetrate down
to the metal, the damaged surface should
be scraped completely clean with a pen-knife or similar.
If the paintwork has not been damaged by flying gravel, a light scraping will remove the dirt.
2. In the event of severe damage due to flying stones, it is necessary to treat the spot concerned with anti-rust primer. The primer should cover completely the scratched and rubbed down edges.
3. When the anti-rust primer has dried, genuine Volvo paint is applied. Stir the paint well or shake the spray bottle thoroughly before use. Apply several thin coats of the paint allowing it to dry thoroughly between each application.
The chromium-plated and anodized parts should be washed with clean water as soon as they become dirty. This is particularly important if you drive on gravel roads which are treated with chemicals to keep the dust down or in the winter when salt is used to melt the snow. After the car has been washed, wax or anti-rust preparation can be applied.
41 Anti-rust treatment
The Volvo 164 is anti-rust treated at the factory. Underbody sealing compound is applied to the underbody on those places exposed to damage from flying stones thrown up by the wheels, i.e. the wheel arches, the entire floor plate and the underside of the sills. Anti-rust fluid is sprayed on the chassis parts. Inspection and any touching-up of the anti-rust protection should be done at regular intervals and at least once a year. The enclosed body sections should also be anti-rust treated by means of spray application at least once a year.
If any touching-up of the anti-rust protection is necessary, this should be done immediately to prevent moisture from seeping in and causing damage.
42 Cleaning the upholstery
The Volvo 164 is available with two different upholstery combinations: leather and vinyl or fabric and vinyl.
A damp cloth, possibly moistened with a mild soap solution, should be used for cleaning the leather upholstery. For the removal of more difficult spots, an expert should be consulted concerning the choice of cleaning agent.
Normally many different kinds of spots can be removed from fabric with soap and water or washing agent.
For more difficult spots, e.g., from asphalt, oil, ice-cream, shoe cream, butter, etc., carbon tetrachloride - petrol (equal parts carbon tetrachloride and chemically pure petrol) can be used on the fabric upholstery.
The vinyl is washed with mild soap solution or, in more difficult cases, with a household washing agent.
Petrol, white spirit, carbon tetrachloride or similar cleaning agents must not be used for the leather upholstery and vinyl since these agents damage the leather upholstery and vinyl.
Cleaning the floor mats
The floor carpets should be vacuum-cleaned or brushed clean regularly. Now and again, and specially during the wintertime, they should be taken out for drying. Mild washing agent will remove any spots.
BEFORE A LONG-DISTANCE TRIP
If you are thinking of taking your car abroad or on a long journey, have it checked at a Volvo workshop. You will enjoy your journey better if you know that your car is in perfect trim. Irritating incidents can be avoided as well as expensive and time-absorbing stoppages. Wherever you go there should be a Volvo workshop within easy reach to attend to your car if required.
However, it is always a good idea before making a trip to ensure that, at least on a minor scale, you have with you a comprehensive touring kit. This is particularly the case if you anticipate widely varying conditions as regards climate, roads and the prevalence of much dust. Many workshops stock special kits for this purpose. Remember when filling up with fuel to observe the existing fuel recommendations. If you prefer to look over your vehicle yourself, the following hints are worthwhile noting:
1. Check the brakes, front wheel alignment and steering gear.
2. Check the engine and drive units with regard to fuel, oil, coolant leakage.
3. Examine the tires carefully. Replace worn tires.
4. Check that the engine is running perfectly and that fuel consumption is normal.
5. Examine the state of charge of the battery and clean the terminals.
6. Look over the tool equipment and check the spare wheel.
7. Check that the lighting functions properly.
PROCEDURE IN COLD WEATHER
When cold weather is on the way, it is time to think of the winter servicing of your car. The first night of frost can come as a very unpleasant surprise unless preventive precautions have been taken.
Engine cooling system
A good quality anti-freeze should be used all the year round. Thus, the cooling system should always contain a mixture of 50 % anti-freeze and 50 % water.
Concerning changing coolant, see page 43. Experience has also shown that extremely weak anti-freeze solutions (10-25%) are very unfavorable from the point of view of rust protection. For this reason, the quantity of anti-freeze should amount to about 50% of the coolant, that is, 6.2 litres (11 Imp. pints = 13 U.S. pints), this lowering the freezing point to -35°C (31°F).
Radiator spirit is not recommended as an anti-freeze agent since it evaporates at normal engine temperature.
Engine lubricating system
During the winter multigrade oil or engine oil SAE 10 W should be used for the engine lubricating system. At very low temperatures (below -20°C = -4°F) multigrade oil SAE 5 W-20 is recommended. This oil reaches the lubricating points in the engine more easily at low temperature and also facilitate cold starting. See page 37.
The electrical system in the vehicle is subjected to greater stresses during the winter than during the warm summer months. The lighting and starter motor are used more and since the capacity of the battery is also considerably lower at low air temperature, the state of charge must be checked more often and, if necessary, the battery charged. If the battery voltage is excessively low, there is risk of the battery being damaged by frost.
During very cold weather the brakes are subjected to splash and condensation water which can result in the handbrake freezing up if left on. When you park the car, do not apply the handbrake but engage the first gear or reverse and if possible place blocks behind the wheels. See also page 23.
In the same way as anti-freeze is added to the cooling system during the winter to prevent frost damage, anti-freeze should also be added to the water container for the windscreen washers. This is particularly important because the windscreen during the winter frequently becomes dirty and is often splashed with water which rapidly freezes and thus necessitates the frequent use of the windscreen washer and wipers. Your Volvo dealer can supply you with suitable anti-freeze for this purpose.
Anti-freeze for door locks
A frozen door lock is one of the most irritating things that can happen to a car owner. Remember this in good time and lubricate the locks in advance with some suitable anti-freeze agent. Such agents are now available in small handy tubes which can easily be placed in a handbag or coat pocket.
Engine fuel system
During the wintertime with large variation in temperature, condensation water forms in the fuel tank and this can impair the running of the engine. This can be eliminated by adding carburettor spirit to the fuel. Also, there is less risk of condensation water forming if the tank is kept well-filled.
WHEN THE ENGINE STALLS
OR WILL NOT START
The information given below is only intended to serve as a guide in localizing and temporarily correcting minor faults. After having carried out any such measures, have them checked and adjusted by an experienced mechanic.
The engine does not start although the starter motor turns it over at normal speed
1. Check to make sure there is fuel in the
2. If the engine is warm, starting should be done with the accelerator pedal slowly depressed as far as it will go.
3. In wet weather the spark plug insulators should be wiped clean and the distributor cap removed and wiped dry if flashover is suspected.
4. Check that the fuel line connections on the pump and carburettor are not leaking and that fuel is supplied to the carburettors.
5. If the engine is turned over for a while without having started, too rich a fuel mixture can enter the cylinders so that the spark plugs become wet. Blow the cylinders clean by screwing out the spark plug and turning over the engine with the starter motor. Dry the spark plugs before fitting them.
If the engine still does not start
1. Remove the ignition lead from each plug in turn. Hold the end of the lead about "1/4" from the cylinder block while turning over the engine with the ignition switched on. If there is a strong spark, the fault is probably in the spark plugs, so these should be changed.
2. If only a weak spark is obtained or none at all, check to see whether the ignition leads are properly inserted in the distributor and ignition coil.
3. Remove the distributor cap, check and clean all contact surfaces. Check that the contact breakers close properly when the engine is turned over. If the contact breaker arm shaft binds, oil It very sparingly.
If the engine misfires, the reason can be:
1. That one of the ignition leads has loosened in the distributor cover or from the sparking plug.
2. That one or more of the spark plugs is coated with soot or oiled up, in which case the plug concerned should be cleaned or changed and the spark plug gap adjusted.
3. That the distributor cap and rotor arm are cracked or damaged.
4. That one of the ignition leads is in a poor condition.
5. That the contact breaker gap in the distributor is insufficient or non-existent.
6. That the contact breakers are badly burnt.
How to start your car downhill
Switch on the ignition, pull out the choke if required, engage 3rd gear or even 4th and let the car roll downwards with the clutch pedal depressed. When the speed is up to 15-20 km.p.h. (9-12 m.p.h.), and not before, release the clutch pedal slowly. Being towed: Secure the towline to the towing loop. The car is towed at an even speed in 2nd gear. Try starting as suggested in the previous paragraph.